May 2018 Briefing - Infectious Disease

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for May 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

FDA Issues Final Guidance on Inhalational Anthrax

THURSDAY, May 31, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Final guidance has been issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to assist in the development of drugs for the prevention of inhalational anthrax for individuals who may have been exposed but who have not yet displayed related signs or symptoms.

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ASHP: SVP, Injectable Opioid Shortages Threaten Patient Care

THURSDAY, May 31, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The widespread shortages of injectable opioids and small-volume parenteral (SVP) solutions are jeopardizing patient care and placing a strain on hospital operations, according to a report published by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP).

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Children Typically Have 14 Simple Infections by Age 3 Years

WEDNESDAY, May 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Children experience a median of 14 infections during their first three years of life, though there is large variation in incidence, according to a study published online May 24 in Pediatrics.

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Most Premature Infants Receive Early Antibiotics

TUESDAY, May 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Most premature infants receive empirical antibiotic therapy, according to a study published online May 25 in JAMA Network Open.

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CDC IDs Outbreak Trends Tied to Treated Recreational Water

FRIDAY, May 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Outbreaks associated with treated recreational water with confirmed infectious etiology are usually caused by Cryptosporidium, Legionella, or Pseudomonas, according to research published in the May 18 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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AAP Recommending Injectable Flu Shot for 2018-19 Flu Season

THURSDAY, May 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Parents are advised to choose the injectable flu vaccine for the 2018 to 2019 season, according to a decision published by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), which will publish a formal policy statement on the issue in September.

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Congress Approves Bill Expanding Private Care for VA Patients

THURSDAY, May 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Patients served by the beleaguered Veterans Affairs health system may have wider access to private care, thanks to a bill approved Wednesday by the Senate. President Donald Trump is known to support the bill, which now awaits his signature.

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Delay of Lactate Draws in Sepsis Ups Risk of In-Hospital Death

THURSDAY, May 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Each hour of delay in detecting abnormal lactates in patients with sepsis increases the odds of in-hospital death, according to a study published online May 24 in CHEST.

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Global Variation in Personal Health Care Access and Quality

THURSDAY, May 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There is considerable global variation in personal health care access and quality, according to a study published online May 23 in The Lancet.

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CDC: No Change in Level of Uninsured in U.S. in 2017

TUESDAY, May 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Overall, 9.1 percent of individuals in the United States were uninsured in 2017, which was not significantly different from the level in 2016, according to a report published online May 22 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Centers for Health Statistics.

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TNFi Exposure In Utero Does Not Up Serious Infection Risk

TUESDAY, May 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Offspring born to mothers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are exposed to tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNFi) in the gestational period do not have a significantly increased risk of serious infections, according to a study published online May 17 in Arthritis & Rheumatology.

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Addressing Parents' HPV Vaccine Hesitancy Ups Vaccination Rates

TUESDAY, May 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Providers engaging parents hesitant about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and addressing their concerns can lead to same-day vaccinations, according to a study published online May 15 in Pediatrics.

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Robust Immune Responses for Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine

MONDAY, May 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Recipients of the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su), consisting of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE) and AS01B Adjuvant System, develop robust immune responses, according to a study published in the June 1 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases.

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Language Used in Medical Record Can Affect Patient Care

FRIDAY, May 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Stigmatizing language used in medical records to describe patients can influence medical students and residents in terms of their attitudes towards the patient and their clinical decision-making, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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Two Novel Immune-Response Clusters Identified to RSV

FRIDAY, May 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Two novel immune-response clusters have been identified to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and they are associated with first- and second-year recurrent wheeze, according to a study published online May 7 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Molecular Basis for Varied Presentations of ETEC Explored

FRIDAY, May 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The EtpA adhesion molecule, which is secreted by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain H10407, is a dominant ETEC blood group A-specific lectin/hemagglutinin, according to a study published online May 17 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

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Good Evidence That HPV Vaccines Protect Against Cervical Precancer

THURSDAY, May 17, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines protect against cervical precancer in adolescent girls and young women, according to a review published online May 9 in the Cochrane Library.

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Nonprofit Manufacturer Could Keep Generic Drug Costs Down

WEDNESDAY, May 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A nonprofit manufacturer could help keep generic drug prices down and maintain their supply, according to a perspective piece published in the May 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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New Rabies Test Could Radically Change Testing, Treatment

WEDNESDAY, May 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A new rapid rabies test for animals could revolutionize screening and spare humans unnecessary painful treatment, according to a U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study published online May 16 in PLOS ONE.

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Best Practices Developed for Use of EHR to Enhance Patient Care

WEDNESDAY, May 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Best practices have been developed for using electronic health records (EHRs) to enhance patient-centered care, according to an article published online in Medical Economics.

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Hepatitis C-Exposed Infants Not Adequately Screened

WEDNESDAY, May 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Many infants who are exposed to hepatitis C virus (HCV) during pregnancy are not screened for HCV infection, according to a study published online May 2 in Pediatrics.

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Prescription Med Use in Children Down Overall From 1999 to 2014

TUESDAY, May 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- From 1999 to 2014 there was a decrease in prescription medication use overall among children and adolescents, according to a study published in the May 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Novel Purchasing Strategy Could Cut Medicaid Costs for HCV Meds

TUESDAY, May 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A novel purchasing strategy could dramatically reduce the costs of medications for hepatitis C virus (HCV), according to an Ideas and Opinions piece published online May 15 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Midstream Urine Microbiome Diverse in Seniors With CKD

FRIDAY, May 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Older adults with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a diverse midstream voided urine microbiome, according to a study published online April 12 in International Urology and Nephrology.

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Sofosbuvir Improves Renal Safety in Patients With Chronic Hep C

FRIDAY, May 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Sofosbuvir-based treatment appears to guarantee renal safety for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus over one year of follow-up, according to a study published online May 7 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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Initiative Cuts Overuse of Tests, Treatments for Bronchiolitis

FRIDAY, May 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A multidisciplinary improvement initiative can reduce overuse of interventions for bronchiolitis, according to a study published online May 11 in Pediatrics.

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Screening Blood Donations for Zika Virus Is Costly, Low Yield

FRIDAY, May 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Screening blood donations for Zika virus (ZIKV) in the United States is costly with low yield, according to a study published in the May 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Regulatory Requirements Drive Dissatisfaction With EHRs

TUESDAY, May 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Regulatory requirements are likely to be an important aspect of physician dissatisfaction with electronic health records (EHRs) that is driving burnout, according to an Ideas and Opinions piece published online May 8 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Eyes of Ebola Survivors Show Localized Pathological Changes

MONDAY, May 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have localized pathological changes in photoreceptors, according to a study published online May 3 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Many Organizations Not Meeting Trial Reporting Requirements

FRIDAY, May 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Many organizations are not meeting the trial registration and results reporting requirements clarified by "The Final Rule," which had a compliance date of April 18, 2017, according to a study published online May 1 in BMC Medicine.

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Vectorborne Diseases Up More Than Two-Fold From 2004 to 2016

WEDNESDAY, May 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Vectorborne diseases represent an increasing problem in the United States, with a more than two-fold increase in the number of annual reports from 2004 to 2016, according to research published in the May 1 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Practices Should Be Aware of Correct Way to Fire Employees

TUESDAY, May 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians should be aware of the correct protocol for, as well as the laws involved in, firing employees, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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