March 2018 Briefing - Neurology

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Neurology for March 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Rate of MI, Stroke Higher After Respiratory Infection

FRIDAY, March 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The risk for myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke remains higher after laboratory-confirmed Streptococcus pneumoniae or influenza, according to a study published March 21 in the European Respiratory Journal.

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Montreal Parkinson Risk of Dementia Scale Deemed Accurate

FRIDAY, March 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The office-based, eight-item Montreal Parkinson Risk of Dementia Scale is a valid predictor of development of dementia, according to a study published online March 26 in JAMA Neurology.

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Nurse Education Improves Post-Op Survival in Dementia Patients

THURSDAY, March 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Having more nurses in the hospital with at least a bachelor of science degree in nursing (BSN) is tied to lower post-surgical mortality among patients with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD), according to a study published online March 20 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Novel Interstitium Has Been Identified in Human Tissues

THURSDAY, March 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A previously unrecognized interstitium has been identified in human tissues, according to a study published online March 27 in Scientific Reports.

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Traumatic Brain Injury Rare for Children With Isolated Vomiting

THURSDAY, March 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Children presenting with head injury with isolated vomiting rarely have clinically important traumatic brain injury (ci-TBI) or traumatic brain injury on computed tomography (TBI-CT), according to a study published online March 29 in Pediatrics.

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Lower Thromboembolic Risk With New A-Fib After CABG Versus NVAF

THURSDAY, March 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients post coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is associated with lower long-term thromboembolic risk than that seen among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), according to a study published online March 28 in JAMA Cardiology.

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Liquids in E-Cigarettes Are Heterogeneous, Frequently Toxic

WEDNESDAY, March 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The e-liquids used in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a heterogeneous group, and there is a positive correlation between the number of chemicals contained in the liquid and the likelihood of its toxicity, according to a study published online March 27 in PLOS Biology.

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Physical, Executive Function Most Affected After Ischemic Stroke

WEDNESDAY, March 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The most affected health domains after ischemic stroke are physical function, executive function, and satisfaction with social roles, according to a study published online March 28 in Neurology.

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Children With ASD, Younger Siblings Are Undervaccinated

WEDNESDAY, March 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Compared with the general population, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their younger siblings are undervaccinated, according to a study published online March 26 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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EHR Usability Contributes to Possible Patient Harm Events

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic health record (EHR) usability may contribute to possible patient harm events, according to a research letter published in the March 27 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Concern for Employer, Insurance Discrimination for Alzheimer's Patients

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. adults express concerns about discrimination by employers and insurance for patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia, according to a study published online March 27 in Alzheimer's & Dementia.

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Educational Attainment Down With In Utero Exposure to AEDs

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to sodium valproate or a combination of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in utero is associated with worse attainment on national educational tests for 7-year-olds, according to a study published online March 26 in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.

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Social Isolation, Loneliness May Increase AMI, Stroke Risk

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Isolation and loneliness may be associated with increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke, according to a study published online March 27 in Heart.

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Amygdala Neurons Reduced in Adulthood With Autism

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In neurotypical development, there is an increase in the number of mature neurons in the basal and accessory basal nuclei, whereas an initial excess of amygdala neurons is seen during childhood in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), followed by a reduction in adulthood, according to a study published online March 20 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Complete Genome Sequence Can Be ID'd From Amniotic Fluid

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The complete genome sequence of fetuses can be elucidated from amniotic fluid, according to a study published online March 15 in Clinical Chemistry.

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Ethical Duties ID'd for Short-Term Global Health Experiences

MONDAY, March 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In a position paper published online March 27 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, ethical obligations have been detailed for physicians participating in short-term global health experiences (STEGHs).

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MVPA Mortality Risk Reduction Not Tied to Exercise in Bouts

FRIDAY, March 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with reduced mortality risk, regardless of whether it is accumulated in bouts, according to a study published online March 22 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Lean Approach May Help Tackle Burnout in Health Care Providers

FRIDAY, March 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The Lean approach, which emphasizes reducing waste and improving customer value by focusing on the big picture, can be used to address physician burnout, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Siponimod Cuts Risk of Disability Progression in Multiple Sclerosis

FRIDAY, March 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, the selective sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor1,5 modulator, siponimod, is associated with reduced relative risk of confirmed disability progression, according to a study published online March 22 in The Lancet.

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Neural Markers of Depression Resilience ID'd in Female Teens

FRIDAY, March 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescent females at high familial risk of depression who do not go on to develop depression have compensatory functional connectivity patterns in emotion regulatory networks, according to a study published online March 21 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Unique Risks Associated With Texting Medical Orders

THURSDAY, March 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Despite the popularity, convenience, and speed of texting medical orders, there are unique and alarming risks associated with the practice, according to a report published in Drug Topics.

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Hormone Therapy May Impact Brain Structure, Cognition

WEDNESDAY, March 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Taking menopausal hormone therapy may have long-term effects on the brain, according to a study published online March 21 in Neurology.

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Blueprint Being Developed to Address Physician Burnout

WEDNESDAY, March 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A new, three-pronged approach is being applied to develop a blueprint for addressing physician burnout, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Personal Health Info Found in Recycling at Five Hospitals

TUESDAY, March 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A considerable amount of personal health information (PHI) and personally identifiable information (PII) was found in the recycling at five Canadian teaching hospitals, according to a research letter published in the March 20 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Tamoxifen, Raloxifene Linked to Improvements in MD in Mice

TUESDAY, March 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Tamoxifen and raloxifene are associated with improvements in muscular dystrophy caused by mutations of the Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene in a mouse model, according to a study published in the April issue of The American Journal of Pathology.

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Prior Authorization Negatively Impacts Clinical Outcomes

MONDAY, March 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The burdens associated with prior authorization (PA) are high and include a negative impact on clinical outcomes, reported by 92 percent of physicians, according to the results of a survey conducted for the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Nurse-Supported Post-Stroke Voiding Program Appears Helpful

MONDAY, March 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Participants in a systematic voiding program for post-stroke incontinence found it to be helpful, according to a study published online March 8 in the Journal of Clinical Nursing.

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Risk of Secondary ADHD Higher After Childhood TBI

MONDAY, March 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Children with early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) have increased risk of secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (SADHD), according to a study published online March 19 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Altered Neural Responses in Memory Processing in T1DM

MONDAY, March 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Young adults with type 1 diabetes have altered neural responses during working memory processing, according to a study published online March 12 in Diabetes.

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No Benefit for MRI After Normal Cervical CT in Blunt Trauma

FRIDAY, March 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with obtunded blunt trauma to the cervical spine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up appears not to be beneficial after normal cervical computed tomography (CT) findings, according to a study published online March 14 in JAMA Surgery.

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Reduced Cortical Thickness ID'd in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

FRIDAY, March 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Reduced cortical thickness is seen in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) versus controls, with multiple regions of reduced thickness seen in the superior frontal lobe in females with OSA, according to a study published online March 6 in PLOS ONE.

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Hep C Compounds Alcoholism's Effect on Brain Volume

FRIDAY, March 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Alcohol dependence has deleterious effects on frontal cortical volumes that are compounded by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and drug dependence, according to a study published online March 14 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Gut Bacteria May Be Tied to Brain Dysfunction From Sepsis

THURSDAY, March 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Gut bacteria may be tied to sepsis-related brain dysfunction, according to a study published recently in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Review: Virtual Reality Distracts From Pain of Medical Procedures

THURSDAY, March 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Virtual reality (VR) appears to be an effective distraction intervention to relieve pain and distress during various medical procedures, according to a review published online Feb. 26 in The Clinical Journal of Pain.

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Zika-Tied Birth Defects in 7 Percent of Infected Pregnant Women

WEDNESDAY, March 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Seven percent of pregnant women with symptomatic Zika virus (ZIKV) infection have birth defects possibly associated with ZIKV infection, according to a study published in the March 15 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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High Midlife Cardio Fitness May Ward Off Dementia in Women

WEDNESDAY, March 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- High cardiovascular fitness at midlife is associated with a reduced risk of subsequent dementia in women, according to a study published online March 14 in Neurology.

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Drug Copayments Often Exceed Prescription Drug Costs

WEDNESDAY, March 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Drug copayments frequently exceed prescription drug costs, with overpayments affecting 23 percent of all prescriptions, according to a research letter published in the March 13 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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U.S. Spends Twice As Much for Similar Health Care Utilization

TUESDAY, March 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Spending on health care is much higher in the United States than other high-income countries, but utilization rates are similar, according to a study published in the March 13 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Head Injury Outcomes Better With Trauma Center Care

TUESDAY, March 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with isolated, severe head injury have better outcomes if they are initially treated in designated trauma centers, according to a study published online March 1 in the Journal of the American College of Surgeons.

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Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Tied to Increased β-Amyloid

TUESDAY, March 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Baseline excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is associated with increased β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in elderly individuals without dementia, according to a study published online March 12 in JAMA Neurology.

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Three-Pronged Approach Can Improve Physician Engagement

MONDAY, March 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The three-pronged approach implemented by one practice successfully improved physician engagement, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Over 5,100 Noncongenital Zika Cases Reported in U.S. in 2016

MONDAY, March 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A total of 5,168 noncongenital Zika virus disease cases were reported from U.S. states and the District of Columbia in 2016, with 95 percent of cases identified in travelers returning from Zika virus-affected areas, according to research published in the March 9 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Doctors Present Recs For and Against Acupuncture for Pain

MONDAY, March 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The reasons for and against recommending acupuncture for treating pain are discussed in a head-to-head article published online March 7 in The BMJ.

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Doctors Facing Challenge to Help Needy While Protecting Practices

FRIDAY, March 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians are increasingly being challenged to protect their practice finances while helping patients without insurance, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Falls in Elderly Patients Cost $50 Billion Annually

FRIDAY, March 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Older adult falls result in substantial medical costs, according to a study published online March 7 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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High Total Cholesterol Protects Against Cognitive Decline

FRIDAY, March 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of cognitive decline is reduced for people age 85 years and older with high cholesterol, according to a study published online March 4 in Alzheimer's & Dementia.

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30-Day ER Revisit Predicts Poor Outcomes in Elderly

THURSDAY, March 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A revisit to the emergency department within 30 days of a previous visit predicts poor outcomes in elderly adults, according to a study published online Feb. 28 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Higher Sun Exposure Tied to Lower Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

WEDNESDAY, March 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- High sun exposure may lower the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a study published online March 7 in Neurology.

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Cannabidiol Is Effective Add-On for Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy

WEDNESDAY, March 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For pediatric-onset treatment-resistant epilepsy, cannabinoids are effective as an adjunctive treatment for reducing seizure frequency by 50 percent or more, according to a review published online March 6 in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.

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Intensive BP Lowering Doesn't Cut Cerebral Perfusion

TUESDAY, March 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with severe small vessel disease, intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering does not reduce cerebral perfusion, according to a study published online March 5 in JAMA Neurology.

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Dietary Constituents Minimally Attenuate Sodium-BP Link

MONDAY, March 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Other dietary components have a minimal impact on attenuating the adverse association of dietary sodium with blood pressure (BP), according to a study published online March 5 in Hypertension.

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Dexmedetomidine Found to Prevent Delirium in Critically Ill

MONDAY, March 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Low-dose dexmedetomidine significantly reduces delirium in critically ill adults, according to a study published online March 2 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Program Aids Communication for Spouses Affected by Dementia

FRIDAY, March 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- An at-home dyadic, relationship-focused psychoeducational intervention improves communication outcomes among spouses affected by dementia, according to a small study published in the February issue of the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.

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Leptin Tied to Sleep Quality in Obese Patients With T2DM

FRIDAY, March 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Plasma leptin levels are independently associated with sleep quality in obese patients with type 2 diabetes, but not in those who are not obese, according to a study published online Feb. 26 in the Journal of Diabetes Investigation.

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Conventional Hemodialysis Induces Drop in Cerebral Blood Flow

THURSDAY, March 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In elderly patients, conventional hemodialysis induces a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), according to a study published online March 1 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Retinopathy Associated With Accelerated Cognitive Decline

THURSDAY, March 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Retinopathy is associated with accelerated rates of 20-year cognitive decline, according to a study published online Feb. 28 in Neurology.

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