March 2018 Briefing - Cardiology

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Cardiology for March 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

After Hockey Win, Fans' Heart Attack Risk Rises

FRIDAY, March 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Following a professional hockey game victory, there is an increase in heart attack-related hospital admissions among male fans, according to a study published online March 29 in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology.

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Rate of MI, Stroke Higher After Respiratory Infection

FRIDAY, March 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The risk for myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke remains higher after laboratory-confirmed Streptococcus pneumoniae or influenza, according to a study published March 21 in the European Respiratory Journal.

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Aortic Valve Replacement in Elderly Tied to High Mortality

FRIDAY, March 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The 10-year mortality rate in elderly patients who receive surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is considerable, according to a study published in the April 3 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Change in BMI During Puberty Tied to Later Heart Failure Risk

THURSDAY, March 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Change in body mass index (BMI) to overweight during puberty significantly increases men's risk of heart failure later in life, according to a study published online March 12 in the Journal of Internal Medicine.

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Lower Thromboembolic Risk With New A-Fib After CABG Versus NVAF

THURSDAY, March 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients post coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is associated with lower long-term thromboembolic risk than that seen among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), according to a study published online March 28 in JAMA Cardiology.

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Novel Interstitium Has Been Identified in Human Tissues

THURSDAY, March 29, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A previously unrecognized interstitium has been identified in human tissues, according to a study published online March 27 in Scientific Reports.

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mHealth Program Increases Peak VO2 After Cardiac Rehab

WEDNESDAY, March 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- After cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a 12-week mHealth program involving physical activity trackers and health coaching can increase absolute peak VO2 and moderate-high physical activity, according to a study published in the May issue of the American Heart Journal.

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Liquids in E-Cigarettes Are Heterogeneous, Frequently Toxic

WEDNESDAY, March 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The e-liquids used in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a heterogeneous group, and there is a positive correlation between the number of chemicals contained in the liquid and the likelihood of its toxicity, according to a study published online March 27 in PLOS Biology.

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Physical, Executive Function Most Affected After Ischemic Stroke

WEDNESDAY, March 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The most affected health domains after ischemic stroke are physical function, executive function, and satisfaction with social roles, according to a study published online March 28 in Neurology.

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Heart Disease, Stroke Less Prevalent Among Foreign-Born

WEDNESDAY, March 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Foreign-born adults living in the United States have a lower prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke than adults born in the United States, according to a study published online March 28 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Recent Years Have Seen Obesity Prevalence Increasing for Adults

WEDNESDAY, March 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For adults, but not youth, there was an increase in the prevalence of obesity in decade between 2007-2008 and 2015-2016, according to a research letter published online March 23 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Use of E-Cigarettes May Hurt Efforts to Quit Smoking

WEDNESDAY, March 28, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Among smokers who plan to quit after being discharged from the hospital, electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users are less likely to abstain from tobacco at six months, compared to nonusers, according to a study published online March 27 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Condition Readmission Measures Don't Reflect Overall Quality

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Current publicly reported measures may not be good surrogates for overall hospital quality related to 30-day readmissions, according to a study published online March 27 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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EHR Usability Contributes to Possible Patient Harm Events

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic health record (EHR) usability may contribute to possible patient harm events, according to a research letter published in the March 27 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Impaired LV Response During Exercise in Preterm-Born Adults

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The hearts of young adults born prematurely have impaired left ventricular (LV) response to physiological stress during exercise compared with the hearts of those born at term, according to a study published in the March 27 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Social Isolation, Loneliness May Increase AMI, Stroke Risk

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Isolation and loneliness may be associated with increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke, according to a study published online March 27 in Heart.

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Complete Genome Sequence Can Be ID'd From Amniotic Fluid

TUESDAY, March 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The complete genome sequence of fetuses can be elucidated from amniotic fluid, according to a study published online March 15 in Clinical Chemistry.

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Ethical Duties ID'd for Short-Term Global Health Experiences

MONDAY, March 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In a position paper published online March 27 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, ethical obligations have been detailed for physicians participating in short-term global health experiences (STEGHs).

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Intensive Lifestyle Interventions Cut Long-Term Disability in T2DM

MONDAY, March 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes, a long-term weight loss intervention is associated with a reduction in long-term disability, according to a study published online March 15 in Diabetes Care.

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Only Half of Adults With Familial Hypercholesterolemia on Statins

MONDAY, March 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Only about 50 percent of adults with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are on statin therapy, and approximately 30 percent of those are taking high-intensity statins, according to a study published online March 26 in Circulation.

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Sports Sponsorships Often Market Unhealthy Food and Drinks

MONDAY, March 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Sports sponsorships frequently advertise unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverages, according to a study published online March 26 in Pediatrics.

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Lean Approach May Help Tackle Burnout in Health Care Providers

FRIDAY, March 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The Lean approach, which emphasizes reducing waste and improving customer value by focusing on the big picture, can be used to address physician burnout, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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MVPA Mortality Risk Reduction Not Tied to Exercise in Bouts

FRIDAY, March 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with reduced mortality risk, regardless of whether it is accumulated in bouts, according to a study published online March 22 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Smartwatch May Be Able to Passively Detect Atrial Fibrillation

FRIDAY, March 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A smartwatch coupled with a machine learning algorithm is able to accurately detect atrial fibrillation (AF), with some loss of specificity and sensitivity compared to criterion-standard electrocardiography (ECG), according to a study published online March 21 in JAMA Cardiology.

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NSAID Use Linked to A-Fib Risk in Middle-Aged Asian Population

FRIDAY, March 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use is associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in a middle-aged Asian population, according to a study published online March 20 in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacy.

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Unique Risks Associated With Texting Medical Orders

THURSDAY, March 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Despite the popularity, convenience, and speed of texting medical orders, there are unique and alarming risks associated with the practice, according to a report published in Drug Topics.

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Time to Epinephrine Tied to Survival in Non-Shockable OHCA

THURSDAY, March 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with non-shockable initial rhythm, each minute delay in epinephrine administration is associated with reduced survival and unfavorable neurologic outcomes, according to a study published online March 6 in Circulation.

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Calorie Restriction Linked to Sustained Metabolic Adaptation

THURSDAY, March 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Calorie restriction (CR) over two years is associated with considerable weight loss, and with lower than expected energy expenditure (EE) relative to the weight loss, according to a study published online March 22 in Cell Metabolism.

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Hydrochlorothiazide Tied to Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Risk

THURSDAY, March 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Use of the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is associated with a substantially increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Higher Myocardial Infarction Care Payments Improve Mortality

THURSDAY, March 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Higher 30-day payments for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care for both inpatient care and in multiple settings after discharge are associated with lower 30-day mortality among Medicare beneficiaries, according to a study published online March 12 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes.

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Cardiovascular Health Declining in the United States

WEDNESDAY, March 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Trends in racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in cardiovascular health decreased from 1988 to 2014, with the decrease attributed to worsening cardiovascular health among whites, according to a study published online March 20 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Blueprint Being Developed to Address Physician Burnout

WEDNESDAY, March 21, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A new, three-pronged approach is being applied to develop a blueprint for addressing physician burnout, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Physical Activity Linked to Lower Mortality Risk in CHD

TUESDAY, March 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Physical activity (PA), but not weight loss, is associated with improved survival in coronary heart disease (CHD), according to a study published in the March 13 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Personal Health Info Found in Recycling at Five Hospitals

TUESDAY, March 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A considerable amount of personal health information (PHI) and personally identifiable information (PII) was found in the recycling at five Canadian teaching hospitals, according to a research letter published in the March 20 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Prior Authorization Negatively Impacts Clinical Outcomes

MONDAY, March 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The burdens associated with prior authorization (PA) are high and include a negative impact on clinical outcomes, reported by 92 percent of physicians, according to the results of a survey conducted for the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Chronicity of PTSD, Injury Severity Are Risk Factors for HTN

MONDAY, March 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In a severely injured military cohort, the risk of hypertension is increased with chronicity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses and injury severity, according to a study published online March 19 in Hypertension.

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Costs Up for Neonates With Vocal Fold Motion Impairment

MONDAY, March 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For neonates undergoing congenital heart surgery (CHS), vocal fold motion impairment (VFMI) is associated with increased costs due to increased post-procedure length of stay (PPLOS), according to a study published online March 15 in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.

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Generic Clopidogrel Noninferior to Plavix in Seniors With ACS

FRIDAY, March 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients aged older than 65 years with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) hospitalization, generic clopidogrel is noninferior to Plavix for the composite of death and recurrent hospitalization for ACS, according to a study published online March 13 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes.

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Hemodynamic Parameters Predict Outcome in PH-HFpEF

FRIDAY, March 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The hemodynamic parameters transpulmonary gradient, pulmonary vascular resistance, and diastolic pulmonary gradient are associated with mortality and cardiac hospitalization in pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), according to a study published online March 14 in JAMA Cardiology.

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BMI As Predictor of CVD Risk May Be More Susceptible to Bias

FRIDAY, March 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The J-shaped correlation seen for body mass index (BMI) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is susceptible to confounding due to pre-existing comorbidities, according to a study published online March 15 in the European Heart Journal.

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Many Teens Using Tobacco Don't Self-Identify As Users

THURSDAY, March 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Many adolescent users of one or more specific tobacco product type do not self-identify as tobacco users, according to a study published online March 12 in Pediatrics.

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VTE Risk Up in Most Emergency General Surgery Patients

THURSDAY, March 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Almost all emergency general surgery (EGS) patients treated operatively and nonoperatively have increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and should receive prophylactic treatment, according to a review published online March 14 in JAMA Surgery.

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Fewer SIDS Cases Result From Genetic Heart Disease Causes

THURSDAY, March 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Genetic heart diseases (GHDs) cause fewer cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) than previously thought, according to a study published in the March 20 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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More Harms Than Benefits for E-Cigarettes at Population Level

THURSDAY, March 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are associated with more harm than benefit on a population level, according to a study published online March 14 in PLOS ONE.

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Higher Exposure to Air Pollution Adds to CVD Risk for Blacks

THURSDAY, March 15, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Blacks have significantly higher exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (particles with median aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm [PM2.5]), with exposure associated with elevated blood glucose, worse endothelial function, and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to a study published online March 15 in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

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Digoxin Tied to Higher Mortality in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation

WEDNESDAY, March 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Digoxin is independently associated with higher mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) regardless of whether they have heart failure, according to a study published in the March 13 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco System Releases Toxic Chemical

WEDNESDAY, March 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Use of the I quit original smoking (iQOS) heat-not-burn system chars the tobacco plug, and the device releases a toxic chemical, according to a study published online March 13 in Tobacco Control.

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Drug Copayments Often Exceed Prescription Drug Costs

WEDNESDAY, March 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Drug copayments frequently exceed prescription drug costs, with overpayments affecting 23 percent of all prescriptions, according to a research letter published in the March 13 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Lower Hospital Mortality for Acute MI During Heart Meeting

WEDNESDAY, March 14, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Thirty-day mortality is lower for hospitalization with acute myocardial infarction during Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics meeting dates, according to a study published online March 9 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

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U.S. Spends Twice As Much for Similar Health Care Utilization

TUESDAY, March 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Spending on health care is much higher in the United States than other high-income countries, but utilization rates are similar, according to a study published in the March 13 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Low-Level Lead Exposure Ups CVD Mortality Risk in U.S. Adults

TUESDAY, March 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Environmental lead exposure is a risk factor for all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and ischemic heart disease mortality, according to a study published online March 12 in The Lancet Public Health.

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Great Recession Linked to Increase in BP, Blood Glucose

TUESDAY, March 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The 2008 to 2010 Great Recession (GR) had a negative impact on the health of U.S. adults, with significant elevations in blood pressure and fasting glucose, according to a study published online March 12 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Considerable Resource Use, Costs for Cardiovascular Care

MONDAY, March 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The 10-year costs associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are considerable, according to a study published in the March 13 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Three-Pronged Approach Can Improve Physician Engagement

MONDAY, March 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The three-pronged approach implemented by one practice successfully improved physician engagement, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Doctors Facing Challenge to Help Needy While Protecting Practices

FRIDAY, March 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians are increasingly being challenged to protect their practice finances while helping patients without insurance, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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High Total Cholesterol Protects Against Cognitive Decline

FRIDAY, March 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of cognitive decline is reduced for people age 85 years and older with high cholesterol, according to a study published online March 4 in Alzheimer's & Dementia.

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Circulating FGF23 Linked to Incident Coronary Heart Disease

FRIDAY, March 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Higher circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD), according to a study published online March 7 in JAMA Cardiology.

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Pharmacists Play Key Roles in Cardiac Disease Management

THURSDAY, March 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with cardiac disease, pharmacists in all practice settings have an important role in the management of the chronic disease state, according to a report published in Drug Topics.

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Vascular Risk Factors Tied to Increased Incontinence Risk

THURSDAY, March 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Many factors, including vascular risk factors, may play a role in the development of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) in older men and women, according to a study published online March 7 in the BJU International.

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Severe Sleep Apnea During REM Sleep Tied to Acute CV Events

THURSDAY, March 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that occurs during REM sleep is associated with recurrent cardiovascular events in those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, according to a study published in the March 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Patient, Caregiver Characteristics Predict LVAD Response

THURSDAY, March 8, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients receiving left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy and their caregivers, patient and caregiver characteristics predict response, according to a study published online March 7 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Many PICCs Placed Have Dwell Time of No More Than Five Days

WEDNESDAY, March 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- About 25 percent of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) placed have a dwell time of five days or less, and almost 10 percent of patients with a short-term PICC experience a complication, according to a study published in the February issue of the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Aspirin Therapy Appears Safe Before Thyroid Surgery

WEDNESDAY, March 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Continuing aspirin therapy before thyroid surgery does not appear to increase the risk of intraoperative bleeding, according to a study published online March 1 in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.

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FDA Approves Mechanical Heart Valve for Newborns

WEDNESDAY, March 7, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the world's smallest mechanical heart valve, designed to be used in newborns and other young infants with heart defects.

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Coronary Risk Scores Accurate When Used With Low cTnI

TUESDAY, March 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Coronary risk scores for predicting major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) perform well when using a cardiac troponin I (cTnI) cut-off below the 99th percentile, according to a study published in the Feb. 13 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Intensive BP Lowering Doesn't Cut Cerebral Perfusion

TUESDAY, March 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with severe small vessel disease, intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering does not reduce cerebral perfusion, according to a study published online March 5 in JAMA Neurology.

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Minorities Face Worse Prognosis and Complications in T1DM

TUESDAY, March 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Compared to whites, blacks and Hispanics have increased markers of poor prognosis of type 1 diabetes at diagnosis and three years afterward, according to a study published online March 1 in Diabetes Care.

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Increase in Other Flavored Tobacco Use After Menthol Ban

MONDAY, March 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of a ban on menthol cigarettes results in an increase in those attempting to quit, and an increase in use of other flavored tobacco or electronic-cigarette use, according to a study published online March 5 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Dietary Constituents Minimally Attenuate Sodium-BP Link

MONDAY, March 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Other dietary components have a minimal impact on attenuating the adverse association of dietary sodium with blood pressure (BP), according to a study published online March 5 in Hypertension.

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Determining 'Avoidability' of Nursing Home Transfers Complex

MONDAY, March 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A substantial proportion of acute transfers from nursing facilities to hospitals are potentially avoidable, but symptoms and risk conditions are only weakly predictive of hospital diagnoses, according to a study published online Feb. 13 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Higher Positive Cardiomyopathy Genetic Detection Rates for Whites

MONDAY, March 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Compared with underrepresented minorities, white individuals have significantly higher positive detection rates and lower rates of inconclusive results on cardiomyopathy genetic testing, according to a study published online Feb. 28 in JAMA Cardiology.

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High Prevalence of Hearing Loss Seen After Infant Heart Surgery

FRIDAY, March 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of hearing loss in preschool children who had heart surgery in infancy may be above 20 percent, according to a study published in the January issue of The Journal of Pediatrics.

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Shared Decision-Making Beneficial for Destination Therapy LVAD

FRIDAY, March 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A shared decision support intervention is beneficial for patients considering destination therapy left ventricular assist device (DT LVAD) placement, according to a study published online Feb. 26 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Bystander Defibrillation Improves Outcome for Public Cardiac Arrest

THURSDAY, March 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Bystander automated external defibrillator use in shockable observed public out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with improved survival and functional outcomes, according to a study published online Feb. 26 in Circulation.

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CPAP Non-Adherence Tied to CV, All-Cause Hospital Readmissions

THURSDAY, March 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Non-adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is tied to higher rates of hospital readmission for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), according to a study published in a recent issue of the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.

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Obesity Linked to Increased CVD Morbidity and Mortality

THURSDAY, March 1, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Compared with normal body mass index (BMI), obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality linked to cardiovascular disease, and shorter longevity, according to a study published online Feb. 28 in JAMA Cardiology.

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