January 2019 Briefing - Neurology

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Neurology for January 2019. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

AHA: Nearly Half of U.S. Adults Have Cardiovascular Disease

THURSDAY, Jan. 31, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is 48.0 percent in adults in the United States based on 2013 to 2016 data, according to a report published online Jan. 31 in Circulation.

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Management of MS in Pregnancy Reviewed in U.K. Guideline

THURSDAY, Jan. 31, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- It is important to discuss family planning and pregnancy proactively in women of childbearing age who have multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a review published online Jan. 5 in Practical Neurology.

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Aerobic Exercise Tied to Better Cognition at All Ages

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Aerobic exercise contributes to brain health in individuals as young as 20 years, according to a study published online Jan. 30 in Neurology.

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Thymectomy + PDN Beneficial for Non-Thymomatous Myasthenia Gravis

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis, thymectomy plus prednisone confers benefits versus prednisone alone at five years, according to a study published online Jan. 25 in The Lancet Neurology.

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Intensive BP Treatment Does Not Reduce Dementia Risk

TUESDAY, Jan. 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Treating systolic blood pressure (BP) to a goal of less than 120 mm Hg rather than 140 mm Hg does not result in a significant reduction in the risk for probable dementia, according to a study published online Jan. 28 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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NOACs Recommended as First-Line Prevention of Stroke in A-Fib

TUESDAY, Jan. 29, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with atrial fibrillation, novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are recommended over warfarin to prevent stroke and weight loss is recommended for overweight and obese individuals, according to updated guidelines published online Jan. 28 in Circulation.

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Screen Time Linked to Poorer Child Developmental Performance

MONDAY, Jan. 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Screen time is associated with poorer performance on developmental screening tests among young children, according to a study published online Jan. 28 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Helmet Use Low Among Standing Electric Scooter Riders

MONDAY, Jan. 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Helmet use is low among patients presenting to the emergency department with injuries associated with standing electric scooter use, according to a study published online Jan. 25 in JAMA Network Open.

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Machine Learning Methods Can Detect UTI in Dementia Patients

MONDAY, Jan. 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Algorithms that combine Internet of Things (IoT) technologies and in-home sensory devices with machine learning techniques can be used to monitor the health and well-being of people with dementia, according to a study published online Jan. 15 in PLOS ONE.

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Comorbid Neck Injury Up for Women With Concussion

MONDAY, Jan. 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Female patients with a concussion-related emergency department visit have an increased risk for comorbid neck injury, according to a study published online Dec. 28 in the Journal of Women's Health.

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Virtual Video Visits Liked by Patients, Providers

FRIDAY, Jan. 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Virtual video visits can effectively replace office visits for selected patients across medical specialties without sacrificing quality of care or patient-physician communication, according to a study published in the January issue of the American Journal of Managed Care.

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Suicide Incidence Up in Autism Spectrum Disorder 2013 to 2017

FRIDAY, Jan. 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Between 2013 and 2017, the cumulative incidence of suicide was higher in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population compared with the non-ASD population, according to a study published online Jan. 21 in Autism Research.

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Cognitive Scores After Kidney Transplant Tied to Frailty

FRIDAY, Jan. 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Frail kidney transplant recipients have lower cognitive scores than nonfrail recipients four years after transplant, according to a study published online Jan. 24 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Report IDs Areas Lacking Good Practice in Health Tech Assessment

FRIDAY, Jan. 25, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In a report published in the January issue of Value in Health, an ISPOR--The Professional Society for Health Economics and Outcomes Research working group indicates the lack of good practices in three areas of health technology assessment (HTA).

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Risk for Conversion of MS Varies With Different Therapies

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), the risk for conversion to secondary progressive MS is lower with initial treatment with fingolimod, alemtuzumab, or natalizumab versus glatiramer acetate or interferon beta, according to a study published online in the Jan. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Levodopa + Carbidopa Does Not Modify Disease in Early Parkinson

THURSDAY, Jan. 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with early Parkinson disease, treatment with levodopa combined with carbidopa has no disease-modifying effect, according to a study published in the Jan. 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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BP >120/80 mm Hg Linked to Lower Gray Matter Volume

THURSDAY, Jan. 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In young adults, lower gray matter volume (GMV) is seen in individuals with blood pressure (BP) >120/80 mm Hg, according to a study published online Jan. 23 in Neurology.

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Most Stroke Survivors ≥50 Years Report Complete Mental Health

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- More than two-thirds of stroke survivors aged 50 years or older report being in complete mental health (CMH), according to a study published online Jan. 9 in the Journal of Aging and Health.

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Mavoglurant Improves Visual Attention in Fragile X Syndrome

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 23, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS), mavoglurant treatment improves visual attention and pupil reactivity, according to a study published online Jan. 17 in PLOS ONE.

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Canadian Syncope Risk Score IDs ED Monitoring Time Postsyncope

TUESDAY, Jan. 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The risk for arrhythmic conditions can be identified quickly among patients with syncope presenting to the emergency department, according to a study published online Jan. 21 in Circulation.

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Medical Cannabis Decisions Being Made by Users, Not Doctors

TUESDAY, Jan. 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Many patients use medical cannabis without their mainstream health care provider's knowledge, and further, they self-adjust their pharmaceutical use in response to cannabis use, according to a study published online Jan. 8 in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.

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Frailty Could Increase Susceptibility for Dementia

FRIDAY, Jan. 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Frailty and Alzheimer disease-related brain changes independently contribute to dementia status, according to a study published in the February issue of The Lancet Neurology.

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FDA Down to 5 Weeks of Funding to Review New Drug Applications

THURSDAY, Jan. 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Due to the federal government shutdown, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has only about five weeks of funding left to review new drug applications, according to Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D.

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FDA Approves First Generic Version of Epilepsy Drug Sabril

THURSDAY, Jan. 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The first generic version of Sabril (vigabatrin) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to prevent complex partial seizures in adults and children aged 10 years and older with epilepsy.

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Nerve Transfer Promising for Acute Flaccid Myelitis Patients

THURSDAY, Jan. 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Two patients diagnosed with acute flaccid myelitis and upper-extremity neuropathy who were treated with peripheral nerve transfer continue to demonstrate functional recovery at two years, according to a case series recently published in Pediatric Neurology.

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Temporary Impairment in HRQOL After Teen Sports Concussion

THURSDAY, Jan. 17, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescent sports-related concussion (SRC) is associated with temporary impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQOL), according to a study published online Jan. 15 in the Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics.

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Adoption of Advanced Health IT Capabilities Inconsistent

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Adoption of advanced health information technology (HIT) capabilities is inconsistent across health care systems, with electronic health record (EHR) standardization being the strongest predictor of advanced capabilities, according to a study published in the January issue of the American Journal of Managed Care.

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High Levels of Activity, Motor Ability Linked to Better Cognition

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 16, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In older adults, higher levels of total daily activity and better motor abilities are associated with better cognition, according to a study published online Jan. 16 in Neurology.

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Breakdown of Blood-Brain Barrier May Drive Dementia

TUESDAY, Jan. 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be an early biomarker of cognitive dysfunction, independent of amyloid or tau marker status, according to a study published online Jan. 14 in Nature Medicine.

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Stem Cell Transplant Slows Progression of Multiple Sclerosis

TUESDAY, Jan. 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCST) is associated with prolonged time to disease progression compared with disease-modifying therapy (DMT), according to a study published in the Jan. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Study Explores Influence of Genetics, Environment in Disease

TUESDAY, Jan. 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The influence of heritability and environmental factors has been identified for a large number of phenotypes, according to a study published online Jan. 14 in Nature Genetics.

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Cardiometabolic Risk Up With Tourette, Chronic Tic Disorder

TUESDAY, Jan. 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD) have an increased risk for developing at least one metabolic or cardiovascular disorder, according to a study published online Jan. 14 in JAMA Neurology.

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American College of Physicians Releases 7th Edition of Ethics Manual

TUESDAY, Jan. 15, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Ethical principles are discussed in an updated Ethics Manual, issued by the American College of Physicians (ACP) and published as a supplement to the Jan. 15 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Terrorist Attack Victims With PTSD Have Higher Cancer Risk

MONDAY, Jan. 14, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), those who were victims of terrorist attacks (TA) have a higher risk for neoplasms than those who experience other traumatic events (OTE), according to a study published online Jan. 8 in the Journal of Neuroscience Research.

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One in Five Back Pain Patients Experience Persistent Pain

MONDAY, Jan. 14, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Eighteen percent of patients with back pain experience a persistent trajectory, according to a study published online Jan. 14 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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Prices Still Explain High U.S. Health Care Spending

FRIDAY, Jan. 11, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The difference in health spending between the United States and other countries is still explained by health care prices, according to a study published in the January issue of Health Affairs.

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Private Equity Acquisition of Physician Practices Discussed

THURSDAY, Jan. 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The phenomenon of private equity acquisition of physician practices is discussed in an Ideas and Opinions piece published online Jan. 8 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Less Deep Sleep in Elderly Tied to Alzheimer Disease Markers

THURSDAY, Jan. 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Older people who have less slow wave sleep have higher levels of the brain protein tau, a marker of brain damage and Alzheimer disease (AD), according to a study published in the Jan. 9 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Obesity Linked to Lower Gray Matter Brain Volume

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity is associated with lower gray matter brain volumes, according to a study published online Jan. 9 in Neurology.

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Psychotherapy May Reduce Frequency of Nonepileptic Seizures

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Adherence to psychotherapy is associated with improved outcomes in individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), according to a study published online Jan. 4 in Neurology.

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No Increased Fall Risk With HTN Treatment in Older Women

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Treating high blood pressure (BP) is not associated with an increased fall risk among older women, according to a study published online Jan. 7 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Many Female Health Care Workers Live in Poverty

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Many U.S. female health care workers, particularly women of color, live in poverty and lack health insurance, according to a study published online Dec. 20 in the American Journal of Public Health.

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Increase in Brand-Name Drug Cost Mainly Due to Existing Drugs

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 9, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The costs of oral and injectable brand-name drugs increased from 2008 to 2016, with most of the increase due to existing drugs, while new drugs accounted for cost increases in specialty and generic drugs, according to a study published in the January issue of Health Affairs.

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Medical Marketing Has Increased in Past 20 Years

TUESDAY, Jan. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- From 1997 through 2016, there was an increase in medical marketing, especially direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising, according to research published in the Jan. 1/8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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AI Technology IDs Genetic Diseases by Analyzing Facial Photos

TUESDAY, Jan. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Certain genetic diseases can be detected by new artificial intelligence technology that analyzes a photo of a person's face, according to a study published online Jan. 7 in Nature Medicine.

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Costs Higher for Those With Comorbid Noncommunicable Diseases

TUESDAY, Jan. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The costs of having two noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is generally superadditive, according to a study published online Jan. 8 in PLOS Medicine.

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Racial Differences ID'd in Some Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease

TUESDAY, Jan. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Certain molecular biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease differ with race, according to a study published online Jan. 7 in JAMA Neurology.

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Single-Family Rooms May Benefit Very Preterm Infants

TUESDAY, Jan. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For extremely preterm infants, the use of single-family rooms is associated with reduced sepsis incidence and improvements in breastfeeding rates during hospital stays but with no difference in long-term neurodevelopment, according to a review published online Jan. 7 in The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health.

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Cancer Death Rate in U.S. Decreased Continuously From 1991 to 2016

TUESDAY, Jan. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The overall cancer death rate decreased continuously by 27 percent from 1991 to 2016, according to a report published online Jan. 8 in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.

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ACA Coverage Gains Could Erode Without Individual Mandate

TUESDAY, Jan. 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Eliminating the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate penalty is unlikely to destabilize the individual market in California but could roll back coverage gains, according to a study published in the January issue of Health Affairs.

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Rituximab Beneficial in Secondary Progressive MS

MONDAY, Jan. 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), treatment with rituximab is associated with a significantly lower Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and delayed progression, according to a study published online Jan. 7 in JAMA Neurology.

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Meta-Analysis: Botulinum A Tops Placebo for Chronic Migraine

MONDAY, Jan. 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- For chronic migraine, botulinum type A injections are superior to placebo after three months of therapy, according to a meta-analysis published in the January issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

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Employment, Earning Losses Noted After Cardiovascular Events

MONDAY, Jan. 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac arrest, and stroke are associated with substantial loss in employment and earnings at three years postevent, according to a study published online Jan. 7 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Home Monitoring of Lung Function Feasible in Teens With Duchenne

MONDAY, Jan. 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In adolescent patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), use of a handheld device (HHD) to assess pulmonary function at home is feasible and provides reliable data, according to an analysis recently published in the Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases.

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Risk for MCI Up With Progressive Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

FRIDAY, Jan. 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with hypertension with progression of periventricular white matter hyperintensities have an increased risk for incident mild cognitive impairment, according to a study published online Jan. 4 in Hypertension.

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Sex Differences ID'd in Response to Glioblastoma Treatment

FRIDAY, Jan. 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Sex differences have been identified in response to therapy among glioblastoma (GBM) patients, according to a study published in the Jan. 2 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Prenatal Valproate Exposure Linked to Increased ADHD Risk

FRIDAY, Jan. 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Use of the antiepileptic drug (AED) valproate during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among offspring, according to a study published online Jan. 4 in JAMA Network Open.

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Clinical Tool Rapidly Assesses Post-Intensive Care Syndrome

THURSDAY, Jan. 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- The self-report version of the Healthy Aging Brain Care Monitor is valid for assessing post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), according to a study published in the January issue of the American Journal of Critical Care.

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Artificial Intelligence Can Detect, Classify Acute Brain Bleeds

THURSDAY, Jan. 3, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- An artificial intelligence system can diagnose and classify intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), according to a study published online Dec. 17 in Nature Biomedical Engineering.

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Higher Risk for Depression, Anxiety Seen With Cerebral Palsy

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Adults with cerebral palsy (CP) have an increased risk for depression and anxiety, according to a study published online Dec. 28 in JAMA Neurology.

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Impaired Cognitive Status Impacts Rehab Potential in SNFs

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Older adults admitted to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) with cognitive impairment show less improvement in functional status than older adults admitted with no cognitive impairment, according to a study published online Dec. 13 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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