April 2018 Briefing - Pediatrics

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for April 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Review: Need to Strengthen Natural Experiments in Obesity

MONDAY, April 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Based on findings from a systematic review of the literature, recommendations have been developed for improving the evidence for natural experiments in obesity; the review and position paper were published online May 1 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Flu Vaccines Have High Impact, Even With Relatively Low Efficacy

MONDAY, April 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Even relatively low-efficacy influenza vaccines can have a high impact, especially with optimal distribution across age groups, according to a study published online April 30 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Prevalence of ASD Estimated at 16.8 per 1,000 for 8-Year-Olds

MONDAY, April 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was estimated at 16.8 per 1,000 children aged 8 years in 2014, according to research published online April 27 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Checklist Developed for Parents of Children With Cancer

MONDAY, April 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A standardized, time-sensitive checklist can help guide the education process for parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer, according to an article published online March 28 in the Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing.

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CCHD Newborn Screening May Detect Other Diseases

MONDAY, April 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) newborn screening detects a low percentage of new cases of CCHD, but it can detect other important diseases, according to a study published online April 24 in Pediatrics.

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Irregular Menstruation Common in Girls With Type 2 Diabetes

MONDAY, April 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Menstrual dysfunction is common in girls with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes, and does not improve with two years of anti-hyperglycemic treatment, according to a study published online April 24 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Family-Based Treatment of Teen Eating Disorders Helpful

TUESDAY, April 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment outcomes for adolescents with eating disorders seem to correlate with family reports of perceived helpfulness of the family-based treatment (FBT) approach, according to a study published online April 10 in the International Journal of Eating Disorders.

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New Clinic Satisfaction Tool Provides Real-Time Feedback

THURSDAY, April 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A new clinic satisfaction tool improves communication and provides real-time feedback, according to a study published online April 14 in Neurosurgery.

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Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives Good for Teens

FRIDAY, April 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) are suitable for use by adolescents, according to a Committee Opinion published in the May issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Improvement in Race-Based Disparities in Years of Life Lost

THURSDAY, April 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- From 1990 to 2014 there was a decrease in race-based disparities in years of life lost (YLL) in the United States, according to a study published online April 25 in PLOS ONE.

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ACOG Committee Recommends Better, Ongoing Postpartum Care

THURSDAY, April 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Postpartum care should become an ongoing process rather than a single visit in order to optimize the health of women and infants, according to a Committee Opinion published in the May issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Pros and Cons for E-Cigarettes As Aid to Smoking Cessation

THURSDAY, April 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Evidence relating to the pros and cons of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as helpful smoking cessation tools is presented and discussed in a head to head article published online April 25 in The BMJ.

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Saturday Is National Prescription Drug Take Back Day

THURSDAY, April 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and local agencies are holding the 15th National Prescription Drug Take Back Day across the country this Saturday, April 28.

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Multiple Anesthesia Exposures Affect Learning and Attention

THURSDAY, April 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Children with multiple exposures to anesthesia before age 3 are more likely to develop adverse outcomes related to learning and attention, according to a recent study published in Anesthesiology.

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Medicare Requiring Hospitals to Post Prices Online

WEDNESDAY, April 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. hospitals will have to post their standard prices online and make it easier for patients to access their electronic medical records, Medicare officials said Tuesday.

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Fetal Inflammation May Play Role in Preterm Labor

WEDNESDAY, April 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Fetal inflammation and rejection of maternal antigens is associated with uterine contractility and aberrant fetal immune responses, which may play a role in preterm labor (PTL), according to a study published in the April 25 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes No Higher With TDF-FTC-LPV/r

WEDNESDAY, April 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For HIV-infected women and their infants, the risk of adverse birth outcomes is similar with tenofovir, emtricitabine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (TDF-FTC-LPV/r) compared with zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (ZDV-3TC-LPV/r) or TDF-FTC with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), according to a study published in the April 26 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Lonafarnib May Lower Mortality in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria

WEDNESDAY, April 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Lonafarnib monotherapy is associated with lower mortality among patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), according to a study published in the April 24 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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CDC: Birth Rate for 10- to-14-Year-Olds at Record Low in 2016

WEDNESDAY, April 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- From 2000 to 2016 there was a decrease in the birth rate for U.S. females aged 10 to 14 years, according to an April data brief published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

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Disagreement Seen Over Barriers to Kids' Daily Use of Asthma Meds

WEDNESDAY, April 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Children, caregivers, and physicians report different barriers to daily use of asthma medications, according to a study published recently in the Journal of Asthma.

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Increase in HTN in Children Based on 2017 AAP Guidelines

WEDNESDAY, April 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence and severity of high blood pressure (BP) in children have increased based on the 2017 American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guidelines, according to a study published online April 23 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Preteens Metabolically Comparable to Trained Athletes

TUESDAY, April 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Prepubertal children are metabolically comparable to adult endurance athletes, and less fatiguable with high intensity exercise than untrained adults, according to a study published online April 24 in the Frontiers in Physiology.

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In Utero Caffeine Exposure Affects Early Childhood Weight

TUESDAY, April 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy may alter the overall weight growth trajectory of the offspring from 6 weeks to 8 years, according to a study published online April 23 in BMJ Open.

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E-Cigarette Use Tied to Subsequent Marijuana Use in Teens

TUESDAY, April 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is associated with increased subsequent marijuana use among adolescents, according to a study published online April 23 in Pediatrics.

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Factors ID'd to Predict Fatty Liver in Obese Teens

MONDAY, April 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Ethnicity/race, markers of insulin resistance, and genetic factors might help identify obese youth at risk for developing fatty liver, according to a study published online April 17 in Hepatology.

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Pediatric Exposures to Liquid Nicotine Down From 2015 to 2016

MONDAY, April 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatric exposures to liquid nicotine decreased from 2015 to 2016, but exposure still poses serious risks to children, according to a study published online April 23 in Pediatrics.

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FDA Approves First Drug for Rare Form of Rickets

FRIDAY, April 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical Inc.'s Crysvita (burosumab-twza) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat adults and children ages 1 year and older with x-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH).

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Questions Surround Concept of Internet Gaming Disorder

FRIDAY, April 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The concept of internet gaming disorder (IGD) and the pathways leading to it are unclear, according to a review published online April 6 in Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology.

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Small Link for Cannabis Use, Reduced Cognitive Functioning

THURSDAY, April 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For adolescents and young adults, frequent or heavy cannabis use has a small association with reduced cognitive functioning, according to research published online April 18 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Self-Regulation Interventions Beneficial for Children

WEDNESDAY, April 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A range of interventions can successfully improve self-regulation in children and adolescents, according to research published online April 16 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Disordered Eating Among Teens Tied to Future Depression

WEDNESDAY, April 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Disordered eating behavior among adolescents is associated with a significantly increased risk of future depressive symptoms and being bullied by peers, according to a study published online April 11 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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UTI Calculator Predicts Risk of Infant Urinary Tract Infection

TUESDAY, April 17, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The newly developed UTICalc calculator can be used to guide testing and treatment in children with suspected urinary tract infection (UTI), according to a study published online April 16 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Recommendations Developed on Gender Equity in Medicine

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In a position paper published online April 17 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, recommendations are provided aimed at addressing gender equity in physician compensation and career advancement opportunities.

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Most Doctors' Offices Don't Offer Flexibility for Uninsured

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Most physician offices do not offer up-front payment flexibility or low-income discounts to uninsured people, according to a study published in the April issue of Health Affairs.

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Nonoptimized Drug Therapy Costs More Than $500 Billion Annually

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The estimated annual cost of drug-related morbidity and mortality resulting from nonoptimized medication therapy is more than half a trillion dollars in the United States, according to a study published online March 26 in the Annals of Pharmacotherapy.

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Increased Pollution Exposure Ups Health Care Visits for Acute URI

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with increased health care utilization for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), according to a study published online April 13 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Youth With Gender Nonconformity Vulnerable to Adversity

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Youth with gender nonconformity are vulnerable to experiencing adversity, and transgender and/or gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth have higher prevalence of mental health conditions, according to two studies published online April 16 in Pediatrics.

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Number of Drinks Predicts Teens' Other Risky Behaviors

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The number of drinks consumed in high school students' binge drinking episodes predicts other health risk behaviors, according to a study published online April 10 in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research.

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Contextual Factors Linked to Overeating, Loss of Control

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Eating-related factors appear to be most strongly associated with the severity of loss of control (LOC) among young people with overweight or obesity, according to a study published online March 10 in the International Journal of Eating Disorders.

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Yoga, Mindfulness Aid Anxiety in Elementary School Children

FRIDAY, April 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Classroom-based yoga and mindfulness activities may be effective tools for stress management among elementary school students, according to a study published online April 10 in Psychology Research and Behavior Management.

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Soda Tax Cuts Daily Soda, Energy Drink Consumption

FRIDAY, April 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A soda tax does influence daily consumption of regular soda, energy drinks, and bottled water, according to a study published online April 12 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Recent Years Saw Increase in Burden of Prior Authorization

THURSDAY, April 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The burden of prior authorization (PA) has increased over the past five years, and 92 percent of physicians report associated delays in access to care, according to the results of a survey published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity Safe Over Long Term

WEDNESDAY, April 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Neonatal caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity has no detrimental long-term effects and even improves some neurologic measures, according to a study published online April 11 in Pediatrics.

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Tied to Risk of Mental Health Issues

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with higher risk of psychiatric conditions, according to a study published online April 10 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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New Staging System Predicts CKD Progression in Children

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A new staging system can help better predict the length of time until a child with chronic kidney disease (CKD) will progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), according to a study published online April 10 in the American Journal of Kidney Disease.

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Considerable Differences in Burden of Disease at State Level

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There are considerable differences in the burden of disease at the state level, according to a study published in the April 10 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Suggestions Offered to Reduce Physician Frustration With EHRs

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Changes can be implemented to help reduce physician frustration with electronic health records (EHRs), according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Scoliosis Surgery Found Beneficial for Cerebral Palsy Patients

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Scoliosis surgery in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) leads to a significant improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is maintained five years following surgery, according to a study published in the April 4 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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Income-Based Disparities Seen in Pediatric Hospitalizations

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There are pervasive income-based disparities in pediatric inpatient bed-day rates, according to a study published in the April issue of Health Affairs.

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Whole Body CT Doesn't Cut Mortality in Peds Blunt Trauma

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Whole body computed tomography (WBCT) is not associated with reduced mortality compared with a selective CT approach among children with blunt trauma, according to a study published online April 9 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Cannabis Compound Transfers to Breast Milk

MONDAY, April 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Low concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol are transferred from inhaled cannabis to breast milk of women who regularly consume cannabis, according to a study published online April 9 in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Prenatal Exposure to SSRI Tied to Fetal Brain Development

MONDAY, April 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal exposure to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is associated with fetal brain development, according to a study published online April 9 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Program Supporting Parent-Child Reading Aloud Aids Development

MONDAY, April 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The Video Interaction Project (VIP), a parent education program which promotes positive parenting through reading aloud and play, reduces hyperactivity at school entry, according to a study published online April 9 in Pediatrics.

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White Matter Tracts Differ for Infants With Fragile X Syndrome

MONDAY, April 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There are significant differences in the development of 12 fiber tracts between infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and controls, according to a study published online April 4 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Interns' Schedule Takes Toll on Sleep, Physical Activity, Mood

FRIDAY, April 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- New interns' intense and changing schedules take a toll on sleep, activity, and mood, according to a study published online March 14 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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Summer Food Assistance Program Cuts Families' Food Insecurity

FRIDAY, April 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A summer food assistance program that provides electronic benefits transfer cards to low-income households with school-age children improves food security and diet quality during the summer months, according to a study published in the April issue of Pediatrics.

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Glycemic Extremes in T1DM Impact Cognitive Skills in Kids

FRIDAY, April 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Type 1 diabetes is associated with cognitive dysfunction in children, according to a review published online March 23 in the Journal of Diabetes Investigation.

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Leukemia, and Its Treatment, May Pose Neurocognitive Risks

FRIDAY, April 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Underlying leukemia, even before chemotherapy, may pose a neurocognitive risk to young patients, according to a study published online March 29 in JAMA Oncology.

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Ophthalmoscopy, Telemedicine Similar in Accuracy to ID ROP

FRIDAY, April 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Ophthalmoscopy and telemedicine are similarly accurate for detection of clinically significant retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), according to a study published online April 5 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Child Opportunity Index Linked to Pediatric Acute Care Use

FRIDAY, April 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The Child Opportunity Index measure of neighborhood context is associated with pediatric acute care visit frequency and diagnoses, according to a study published online April 6 in Pediatrics.

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Obesity Can Negatively Effect Liver in Children As Young As 8

FRIDAY, April 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Increased adiposity in childhood may negatively impact liver function in children as young as 8 years old, according to a study published online April 4 in The Journal of Pediatrics.

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Online Doc Reviews Don't Reflect Patient Satisfaction Surveys

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Online physician reviews do not reflect patient satisfaction surveys (PSSs), according to a study published in the April issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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ACA Marketplaces Expand Coverage for Chronically Ill

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The Affordable Care Act's Marketplaces covered a disproportionate share of non-elderly adults with high health care risks in the 2014 to 2015 time period, according to a study published in the April issue of Health Affairs.

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ADHD Frequently Co-Occurs With Autism Spectrum Disorder

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and children with both conditions have a higher risk of anxiety and mood disorders, according to a study published in the April issue of Pediatrics.

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Cannabis Use Tied to Increased Likelihood of Cigarette Smoking

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Cannabis use is associated with increased initiation of, persistence of, and relapse to cigarette smoking, according to a study published recently in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.

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Mood Disorders Up for Children of Consanguineous Parents

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Children of first-cousin consanguineous parents are more likely to be in receipt of antidepressant or anxiolytic medications and antipsychotic medications, according to a study published online April 4 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Early-Life Epilepsy Should Be Urgently Treated With EBM

WEDNESDAY, April 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Early-life epilepsy should be treated with the same urgency as pediatric cancer, according to an article published online April 4 in Neurology.

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Variations Identified in Free-Text Directions in E-Prescriptions

WEDNESDAY, April 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There is considerable variation in the quality of free-text patient directions (Sig) in electronic prescriptions (e-prescriptions), according to a study published online April 2 in the Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy.

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QI Project Reduces Unnecessary Peds Inpatient Electrolyte Testing

WEDNESDAY, April 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A quality improvement initiative rapidly reduced unnecessary electrolyte testing among hospitalized pediatric patients, according to a study published online April 4 in Pediatrics.

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Caffeine Citrate Helps Reduce Acute Kidney Injury in Preemies

WEDNESDAY, April 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Caffeine administration in preterm neonates is associated with reduced incidence and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the first week after birth, according to a study published online April 2 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Most Parents Willing to Enroll Child in Food Allergen Trials

TUESDAY, April 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The majority of caregivers of children with food allergy are willing to consider participation in clinical trials for food allergy immunotherapy, according to a research letter published in the March issue of the Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

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CDC: Overdose Deaths Up Across Drug Categories in 2015 to 2016

TUESDAY, April 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- From 2015 to 2016, there were increases in deaths across all drug categories examined, with 63,632 drug overdose deaths in 2016, according to research published in the March 30 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Early Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Tied to Gastroschisis

TUESDAY, April 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Alcohol consumption early in pregnancy may be a risk factor for the development of gastroschisis in neonates, according to a study published recently in the Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine.

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Anomalous Brain Structure ID'd in Preschoolers With ADHD

TUESDAY, April 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Anomalous brain development is evident among medication-naive preschoolers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.

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Overweight, Obesity Contributing to Cancers in Young Adults

TUESDAY, April 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Overweight and obesity may be contributing to specific malignancies at younger ages, according to research published online March 23 in Obesity.

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Antibiotics, Acid-Suppressive Meds Tied to Allergic Disease

MONDAY, April 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The use of acid-suppressive medications and antibiotics during the first six months of infancy is tied to subsequent development of allergic disease, according to a study published online April 2 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Vitamin A Appears Helpful in Pediatric Retinitis Pigmentosa

MONDAY, April 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For children with retinitis pigmentosa, vitamin A supplementation is associated with slower loss of cone electroretinogram amplitude, according to a study published online March 29 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Grief Symptoms Similar in Donor vs Non-Donor Decision Families

MONDAY, April 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Perceptions of the organ donation experience vary between relatives who decide to donate their relative's organs and those who do not, but the decision does not appear to be associated with subsequent grief symptoms, according to a study published online March 19 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Transfusion Outcomes Differ by Race for Peds Scoliosis Surgery

MONDAY, April 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In the surgical correction of pediatric scoliosis, black race is independently associated with increased estimated blood loss, increased rate of blood transfusion, and increased amount of blood transfused, according to a study published online March 9 in Pediatric Anesthesia.

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Recombinant Influenza Vaccine Found to Be Safe in Children

MONDAY, April 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) is well tolerated in children aged 6 to 17 years, and it provides immunogenicity comparable to that of the inactivated vaccine, according to a study published online April 2 in Pediatrics.

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