April 2018 Briefing - Neurology

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Neurology for April 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Primary Care Can Effectively Manage Obstructive Sleep Apnea

MONDAY, April 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Primary care management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is as effective and more cost-effective than in-laboratory diagnosis, according to a study published online April 17 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Prevalence of ASD Estimated at 16.8 per 1,000 for 8-Year-Olds

MONDAY, April 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was estimated at 16.8 per 1,000 children aged 8 years in 2014, according to research published online April 27 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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New Clinic Satisfaction Tool Provides Real-Time Feedback

THURSDAY, April 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A new clinic satisfaction tool improves communication and provides real-time feedback, according to a study published online April 14 in Neurosurgery.

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Rural Childhood, Higher Education Cuts Later Life Dementia Risk

FRIDAY, April 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The combination of a rural upbringing and higher education levels may be protective against dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) for African-Americans, according to a study published online April 16 in The Journals of Gerontology: Series B.

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Sickle Cell Trait Not Linked to Stroke in African-Americans

FRIDAY, April 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For African-Americans, sickle cell trait (SCT) seems not to be associated with the incidence of ischemic stroke, according to a meta-analysis published online April 23 in JAMA Neurology.

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Certain Anticholinergic Drugs Appear to Raise Dementia Risk

FRIDAY, April 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Use of anticholinergic drugs may be tied to a future diagnosis of dementia, according to a study published online April 25 in The BMJ.

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Previous Stroke Tied to Higher Risks in Aortic Valve Replacement

FRIDAY, April 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), previous stroke is a risk factor for recurrent ischemic stroke and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), according to a study published online April 25 in JAMA Cardiology.

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Improvement in Race-Based Disparities in Years of Life Lost

THURSDAY, April 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- From 1990 to 2014 there was a decrease in race-based disparities in years of life lost (YLL) in the United States, according to a study published online April 25 in PLOS ONE.

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Tenecteplase Appears Superior to Alteplase After Ischemic Stroke

THURSDAY, April 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with ischemic stroke, treatment with tenecteplase within 4.5 hours of symptom onset and before thrombectomy is associated with better outcomes than treatment with alteplase during the same timeframe, according to a study published in the April 26 issue the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Saturday Is National Prescription Drug Take Back Day

THURSDAY, April 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and local agencies are holding the 15th National Prescription Drug Take Back Day across the country this Saturday, April 28.

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Multiple Anesthesia Exposures Affect Learning and Attention

THURSDAY, April 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Children with multiple exposures to anesthesia before age 3 are more likely to develop adverse outcomes related to learning and attention, according to a recent study published in Anesthesiology.

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Restless Brain Syndrome Tied to Changes in the Brain

WEDNESDAY, April 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) have morphologic changes in the brain, which could be responsible for the sensory functional symptoms of RLS, according to a study published online April 25 in Neurology.

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Medicare Requiring Hospitals to Post Prices Online

WEDNESDAY, April 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. hospitals will have to post their standard prices online and make it easier for patients to access their electronic medical records, Medicare officials said Tuesday.

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IBD Associated With Increased Incidence of Parkinson's Disease

WEDNESDAY, April 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD), which is attenuated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy, according to a study published online April 23 in JAMA Neurology.

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Exercise Intervention Doesn't Improve Walking Ability in PAD

TUESDAY, April 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), a home-based exercise intervention does not improve walking ability over nine months compared with usual care, according to a study published in the April 24 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Linear Link for Physical Activity, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

TUESDAY, April 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There is a linear correlation for physical activity (PA) with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), according to a study published online April 23 in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.

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Guidelines Developed for Use of Drugs in Multiple Sclerosis

TUESDAY, April 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Guidelines have been developed for use of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis (MS), integrating findings from a systematic review. The review and guidelines were published online April 23 in Neurology.

Systematic Review Summary
Practice Guideline Recommendations Summary

Patients Prefer Doctors Who Engage in Face-to-Face Visits

MONDAY, April 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Patients prefer physicians who engage in face-to-face (F2F) clinic visits, rather than those using an examination room computer (ERC), according to a research letter published online April 19 in JAMA Oncology.

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Controlling High Blood Pressure Could Prevent Dementia

MONDAY, April 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Controlling high blood pressure in older African-Americans may prevent future dementia, according to a study published recently in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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Too Few Adults Taking Epilepsy Meds Have Seizure Control

MONDAY, April 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Although most adults with epilepsy report taking epilepsy medication, less than half of those report having their seizures controlled, according to research published in the April 20 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Grip Strength Indicative of Cognition in Major Depression

MONDAY, April 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For individuals with major depression and bipolar disorder, grip strength is positively associated with cognition, according to a study published online April 18 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Questions Surround Concept of Internet Gaming Disorder

FRIDAY, April 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The concept of internet gaming disorder (IGD) and the pathways leading to it are unclear, according to a review published online April 6 in Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology.

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Annual Visits May Not Increase Cognitive Impairment Detection

FRIDAY, April 20, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Medicare Annual Wellness Visits (AWVs) do not appear to substantially increase the detection of cognitive impairment in older adults, according to a study published online April 2 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Hearing Aids May Mitigate Cognitive Decline, Memory Loss

THURSDAY, April 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Using hearing aids may slow cognitive decline in later life, according to a study published online April 10 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Number of Cigarettes Smoked Daily Tied to Stroke Risk

THURSDAY, April 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There is a strong dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked daily and ischemic stroke risk among men younger than 50 years of age, according to a study published online April 19 in Stroke.

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Small Link for Cannabis Use, Reduced Cognitive Functioning

THURSDAY, April 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For adolescents and young adults, frequent or heavy cannabis use has a small association with reduced cognitive functioning, according to research published online April 18 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Mild TBI May Increase Risk of Parkinson's Disease

WEDNESDAY, April 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) among military veterans, according to a study published online April 18 in Neurology.

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Polypharmacy More Likely for Cancer Survivors

WEDNESDAY, April 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Cancer survivors are more likely to be prescribed five or more unique medications, including drugs with abuse potential, according to a study published online April 12 in Cancer.

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Neuroscience Education, Motor Control Training Ease Spinal Pain

TUESDAY, April 17, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For individuals with chronic spinal pain, pain neuroscience education combined with cognition-targeted motor control training seems more effective than current best-evidence physical therapy, according to a study published online April 16 in JAMA Neurology.

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Sedentary Habits Tied to Medial Temporal Lobe Thinning

TUESDAY, April 17, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For non-demented middle-aged and older adults, there is an inverse correlation between medial temporal lobe (MTL) thickness and sedentary behavior, according to a study published online April 12 in PLOS ONE.

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Recommendations Developed on Gender Equity in Medicine

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In a position paper published online April 17 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, recommendations are provided aimed at addressing gender equity in physician compensation and career advancement opportunities.

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TFs Operate Across Gene Loci Within Disease Phenotypes

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Transcription factors (TFs) seem to operate across gene loci, according to a study published online April 16 in Nature Genetics.

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Nonoptimized Drug Therapy Costs More Than $500 Billion Annually

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The estimated annual cost of drug-related morbidity and mortality resulting from nonoptimized medication therapy is more than half a trillion dollars in the United States, according to a study published online March 26 in the Annals of Pharmacotherapy.

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Negative Affect That Lingers Tied to Health 10 Years Later

FRIDAY, April 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Negative affect that lingers is associated with worse physical health outcomes almost 10 years later, according to a study published online March 19 in Psychological Science.

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Rapid Deployment Valve for Aortic Stenosis Ups Stroke Risk

FRIDAY, April 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with aortic valve stenosis, treatment with a rapid deployment valve (RDV) is associated with increased rates of new-onset pacemaker implantation and disabling stroke, compared with conventional biological valves (CBVs), according to a study published in the April 3 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Negative Fateful Life Events Linked to Advanced Brain Aging

THURSDAY, April 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Negative fateful life events (FLEs) in midlife are associated with advanced predicted brain aging, according to a study published in the July issue of Neurobiology of Aging.

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Recent Years Saw Increase in Burden of Prior Authorization

THURSDAY, April 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The burden of prior authorization (PA) has increased over the past five years, and 92 percent of physicians report associated delays in access to care, according to the results of a survey published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Higher Mortality Risk Seen for 'Night Owls'

THURSDAY, April 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with a later chronotype have increased mortality risk, according to a study published online April 12 in Chronobiology International.

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Later Natural Menopause Can Benefit Future Verbal Memory

WEDNESDAY, April 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Women who have a later natural menopause maintain a small benefit in verbal memory compared with women with earlier menopause, according to a study published online April 11 in Neurology.

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TBI Associated With Increased Risk of Subsequent Dementia

WEDNESDAY, April 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with increased risk of dementia, according to a study published online April 10 in The Lancet Psychiatry.

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Smoke Exposure Tied to Higher CV, Cerebrovascular ER Visits

WEDNESDAY, April 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For all adults, and especially for those older than 65 years, smoke exposure is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular emergency department visits, according to a study published online April 11 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity Safe Over Long Term

WEDNESDAY, April 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Neonatal caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity has no detrimental long-term effects and even improves some neurologic measures, according to a study published online April 11 in Pediatrics.

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Tied to Risk of Mental Health Issues

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with higher risk of psychiatric conditions, according to a study published online April 10 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Considerable Differences in Burden of Disease at State Level

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There are considerable differences in the burden of disease at the state level, according to a study published in the April 10 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Suggestions Offered to Reduce Physician Frustration With EHRs

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Changes can be implemented to help reduce physician frustration with electronic health records (EHRs), according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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One Night of Sleep Deprivation Linked to Amyloid-β Burden

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- One night of sleep deprivation is associated with amyloid-β (Aβ) burden (ABB) in healthy controls, according to a study published online April 9 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Scoliosis Surgery Found Beneficial for Cerebral Palsy Patients

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Scoliosis surgery in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) leads to a significant improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is maintained five years following surgery, according to a study published in the April 4 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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Whole Body CT Doesn't Cut Mortality in Peds Blunt Trauma

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Whole body computed tomography (WBCT) is not associated with reduced mortality compared with a selective CT approach among children with blunt trauma, according to a study published online April 9 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Informal CVD Caregiving Costs Estimated at $61 Billion in 2015

MONDAY, April 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The costs of informal caregiving for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) were estimated at $61 billion in 2015 and are set to more than double by 2035, according to a policy statement published online April 9 in Circulation.

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Prenatal Exposure to SSRI Tied to Fetal Brain Development

MONDAY, April 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal exposure to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is associated with fetal brain development, according to a study published online April 9 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Polypharmacy Linked to Poorer Cognitive, Physical Capability

MONDAY, April 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Polypharmacy is associated with poorer cognitive and physical capability even after adjustment for disease burden, according to a study published online March 24 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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White Matter Tracts Differ for Infants With Fragile X Syndrome

MONDAY, April 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There are significant differences in the development of 12 fiber tracts between infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and controls, according to a study published online April 4 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Increased Risk of Unnatural Death in People With Epilepsy

MONDAY, April 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of unnatural death is increased among people with epilepsy, according to a study published online April 9 in JAMA Neurology.

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Interns' Schedule Takes Toll on Sleep, Physical Activity, Mood

FRIDAY, April 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- New interns' intense and changing schedules take a toll on sleep, activity, and mood, according to a study published online March 14 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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Leukemia, and Its Treatment, May Pose Neurocognitive Risks

FRIDAY, April 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Underlying leukemia, even before chemotherapy, may pose a neurocognitive risk to young patients, according to a study published online March 29 in JAMA Oncology.

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Glycemic Extremes in T1DM Impact Cognitive Skills in Kids

FRIDAY, April 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Type 1 diabetes is associated with cognitive dysfunction in children, according to a review published online March 23 in the Journal of Diabetes Investigation.

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ACA Marketplaces Expand Coverage for Chronically Ill

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The Affordable Care Act's Marketplaces covered a disproportionate share of non-elderly adults with high health care risks in the 2014 to 2015 time period, according to a study published in the April issue of Health Affairs.

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Sex Differences Persist in Academic Rank for Neurologists

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Sex differences persist in academic rank among neurologists, with men more likely to be full professors, according to a study published online April 2 in JAMA Neurology.

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Preserved Neurogenesis in Hippocampus of Healthy Seniors

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Healthy older subjects display preserved neurogenesis, according to a study published in the April 5 issue of Cell Stem Cell.

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Online Doc Reviews Don't Reflect Patient Satisfaction Surveys

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Online physician reviews do not reflect patient satisfaction surveys (PSSs), according to a study published in the April issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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ADHD Frequently Co-Occurs With Autism Spectrum Disorder

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and children with both conditions have a higher risk of anxiety and mood disorders, according to a study published in the April issue of Pediatrics.

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Demoralization Common in Patients With Parkinson's Disease

WEDNESDAY, April 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Demoralization is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is associated with motor dysfunction, according to a study published online April 4 in Neurology.

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Early-Life Epilepsy Should Be Urgently Treated With EBM

WEDNESDAY, April 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Early-life epilepsy should be treated with the same urgency as pediatric cancer, according to an article published online April 4 in Neurology.

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Variations Identified in Free-Text Directions in E-Prescriptions

WEDNESDAY, April 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There is considerable variation in the quality of free-text patient directions (Sig) in electronic prescriptions (e-prescriptions), according to a study published online April 2 in the Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy.

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Noninvasive Brain Stimulation May Help Prevent Migraines

TUESDAY, April 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A noninvasive stimulation device may help prevent migraine attacks, according to a study published online March 4 in Cephalalgia.

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Anomalous Brain Structure ID'd in Preschoolers With ADHD

TUESDAY, April 3, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Anomalous brain development is evident among medication-naive preschoolers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.

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apoE Aggregation May Impact apoE-Mediated Plaque Formation

MONDAY, April 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A primary mechanism for APOE gene (apoE)-mediated plaque formation may result from apoE aggregation, according to a study published online March 30 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

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Agile Implementation Speeds Initiation of Health Care Solutions

MONDAY, April 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In a case demonstration study published online March 7 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, authors describe using Agile Implementation (AI), a method to quickly, efficiently, effectively, and sustainably translate evidence-based health care solutions into practice, in an Aging Brain Care model, an evidence-based collaborative care model which targets older adults with dementia, depression, or delirium.

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Zika Vaccine Could Essentially Eliminate Prenatal Infection

MONDAY, April 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A Zika vaccine could substantially prevent future outbreaks through a combination of direct protection and indirect transmission reduction, according to a modeling study published online April 3 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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