April 2018 Briefing - Infectious Disease

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for April 2018. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Flu Vaccines Have High Impact, Even With Relatively Low Efficacy

MONDAY, April 30, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Even relatively low-efficacy influenza vaccines can have a high impact, especially with optimal distribution across age groups, according to a study published online April 30 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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New Clinic Satisfaction Tool Provides Real-Time Feedback

THURSDAY, April 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A new clinic satisfaction tool improves communication and provides real-time feedback, according to a study published online April 14 in Neurosurgery.

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High Risk of Death After Major Diabetes-Related Amputations

FRIDAY, April 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There is a high risk of postoperative mortality among patients undergoing lower-limb amputation, according to a study published online April 5 in Diabetes Care.

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Improvement in Race-Based Disparities in Years of Life Lost

THURSDAY, April 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- From 1990 to 2014 there was a decrease in race-based disparities in years of life lost (YLL) in the United States, according to a study published online April 25 in PLOS ONE.

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Saturday Is National Prescription Drug Take Back Day

THURSDAY, April 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and local agencies are holding the 15th National Prescription Drug Take Back Day across the country this Saturday, April 28.

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Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes No Higher With TDF-FTC-LPV/r

WEDNESDAY, April 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For HIV-infected women and their infants, the risk of adverse birth outcomes is similar with tenofovir, emtricitabine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (TDF-FTC-LPV/r) compared with zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (ZDV-3TC-LPV/r) or TDF-FTC with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), according to a study published in the April 26 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Medicare Requiring Hospitals to Post Prices Online

WEDNESDAY, April 25, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. hospitals will have to post their standard prices online and make it easier for patients to access their electronic medical records, Medicare officials said Tuesday.

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Five-Day Nitrofurantoin Beats Single-Dose Fosfomycin for UTI

TUESDAY, April 24, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Five-day nitrofurantoin is associated with increased likelihood of clinical and microbiological resolution compared with single-dose fosfomycin among women with lower urinary tract infection (UTI), according to a study published online April 22 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Patients Prefer Doctors Who Engage in Face-to-Face Visits

MONDAY, April 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Patients prefer physicians who engage in face-to-face (F2F) clinic visits, rather than those using an examination room computer (ERC), according to a research letter published online April 19 in JAMA Oncology.

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C. Difficile Risk Higher With Stoma Reversal Versus Colectomy

WEDNESDAY, April 18, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Patients who undergo elective stoma reversal have a higher incidence of postoperative Clostridium difficile infection versus patients who undergo elective colectomy, according to a study published in the May issue of Diseases of the Colon & Rectum.

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Metabolic Syndrome Common With Chronic Hep B Infection

TUESDAY, April 17, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is prevalent among patients with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection, according to a study published online March 29 in Diabetes Care.

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Recommendations Developed on Gender Equity in Medicine

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- In a position paper published online April 17 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, recommendations are provided aimed at addressing gender equity in physician compensation and career advancement opportunities.

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TFs Operate Across Gene Loci Within Disease Phenotypes

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Transcription factors (TFs) seem to operate across gene loci, according to a study published online April 16 in Nature Genetics.

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Increased Pollution Exposure Ups Health Care Visits for Acute URI

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with increased health care utilization for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), according to a study published online April 13 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Nonoptimized Drug Therapy Costs More Than $500 Billion Annually

MONDAY, April 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The estimated annual cost of drug-related morbidity and mortality resulting from nonoptimized medication therapy is more than half a trillion dollars in the United States, according to a study published online March 26 in the Annals of Pharmacotherapy.

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Negative Affect That Lingers Tied to Health 10 Years Later

FRIDAY, April 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Negative affect that lingers is associated with worse physical health outcomes almost 10 years later, according to a study published online March 19 in Psychological Science.

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It Costs $2.2 Billion a Year to Treat Antibiotic Resistance

FRIDAY, April 13, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Costs associated with treating antibiotic-resistant infections have doubled since 2002, according to a report published in the April issue of Health Affairs.

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Recent Years Saw Increase in Burden of Prior Authorization

THURSDAY, April 12, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The burden of prior authorization (PA) has increased over the past five years, and 92 percent of physicians report associated delays in access to care, according to the results of a survey published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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ZIKV RNA Often ID'd in Semen of Men With Symptomatic Infection

WEDNESDAY, April 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA is frequently present in the semen of men with symptomatic ZIKV infection and can persist for over six months, according to a study published in the April 12 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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About Half of Pregnant Women With HIV Have C-Sections

WEDNESDAY, April 11, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- About half of pregnant women with HIV infection underwent cesarean delivery between 1998 and 2013, according to a study published online April 6 in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Suggestions Offered to Reduce Physician Frustration With EHRs

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Changes can be implemented to help reduce physician frustration with electronic health records (EHRs), according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Considerable Differences in Burden of Disease at State Level

TUESDAY, April 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There are considerable differences in the burden of disease at the state level, according to a study published in the April 10 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Pharmacists Play Role in Cutting Hospital-Acquired Infections

MONDAY, April 9, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Pharmacists have been involved in the recent progress made toward reducing hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), according to an article published in Drug Topics.

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Interns' Schedule Takes Toll on Sleep, Physical Activity, Mood

FRIDAY, April 6, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- New interns' intense and changing schedules take a toll on sleep, activity, and mood, according to a study published online March 14 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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Large Drop Seen in Infection-Related Post-Transplant Deaths

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There has been a large drop in infection-related deaths following kidney transplantation since the 1990s, according to a study published online April 5 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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ACA Marketplaces Expand Coverage for Chronically Ill

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The Affordable Care Act's Marketplaces covered a disproportionate share of non-elderly adults with high health care risks in the 2014 to 2015 time period, according to a study published in the April issue of Health Affairs.

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Online Doc Reviews Don't Reflect Patient Satisfaction Surveys

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Online physician reviews do not reflect patient satisfaction surveys (PSSs), according to a study published in the April issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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mRNA Assay Less Sensitive Than DNA Assay for Latent HPV

THURSDAY, April 5, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA assays are less sensitive than HPV DNA assays for detection of latent HPV infection, according to a study published online March 8 in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Medicare Program Narrows Racial Disparities in Readmissions

WEDNESDAY, April 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Medicare's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program is associated with a narrowing of racial disparities in hospital readmissions, according to a study published in the April issue of Health Affairs.

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Variations Identified in Free-Text Directions in E-Prescriptions

WEDNESDAY, April 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There is considerable variation in the quality of free-text patient directions (Sig) in electronic prescriptions (e-prescriptions), according to a study published online April 2 in the Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy.

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CDC: Aggressive Action Needed to Contain Antibiotic Resistance

WEDNESDAY, April 4, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Early aggressive action should be taken to prevent the spread of bacteria harboring unusual resistance genes, according to a report published April 3 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Antibiotics, Acid-Suppressive Meds Tied to Allergic Disease

MONDAY, April 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The use of acid-suppressive medications and antibiotics during the first six months of infancy is tied to subsequent development of allergic disease, according to a study published online April 2 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Zika Vaccine Could Essentially Eliminate Prenatal Infection

MONDAY, April 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- A Zika vaccine could substantially prevent future outbreaks through a combination of direct protection and indirect transmission reduction, according to a modeling study published online April 3 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Recombinant Influenza Vaccine Found to Be Safe in Children

MONDAY, April 2, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- The recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) is well tolerated in children aged 6 to 17 years, and it provides immunogenicity comparable to that of the inactivated vaccine, according to a study published online April 2 in Pediatrics.

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