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Evolution of the Intestinal Microbiome: Helping Parents Lay the Foundation for Childhood Health

Evolution of the Intestinal Microbiome: Helping Parents Lay the Foundation for Childhood Health



Time to Complete

1 hour


December 1, 2018


June 30, 2020
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Maximum Credits

1.00 / AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM
1.00 / CPEU for Registered Dieticians (RDs)/Dietetic Technicians, Registered (DTRs)

Accredited Provider

Provided by Haymarket Medical Education

Commercial Supporter

Supported by an educational grant from Nestlé Nutrition Institute

Program Description

There has been lot of media attention on the potential for prebiotics and probiotics to prevent the development of allergies as well as to prevent and/or treat gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and colic in infants, but not all of the information parents of infants and young children get from the lay media is accurate or reliable. Pediatricians and other clinicians who advise parents about infant and child nutrition are challenged to provide parents with up-to-date information about this rapidly evolving field of study. In this video, the expert faculty discuss key issues regarding the importance of the infant gut microbiome and our still-evolving understanding of its critical role in the development of a healthy immune system, as well as its direct effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Topics include the safe and efficacious use of prebiotics, probiotics, and human milk oligosaccarides that are being made commercially available in infant formulas.

Intended Audience

Pediatricians, family physicians, pediatric and family nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs), dietitians, and other clinicians who advise parents about the nutritional needs of infants and children

Educational Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be better able to:

  • Describe the intestinal microbiome and the role of pre- and probiotics in pediatric health and development of the immune system
  • Identify factors, including vaginal birth and breastfeeding, that promote healthful microbial colonization of the infant gut
  • Recommend evidence-based strategies for using probiotics in the management of pediatric diarrhea and colic
  • Advise parents about the evolving understanding of the benefits of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) added to infant formula

Disclosure of Conflict of Interest Policy

In accordance with the ACCME Standards for Commercial Support, HME requires that individuals in a position to control the content of an educational activity disclose all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. HME resolves all conflicts of interest to ensure independence, objectivity, balance, and scientific rigor in all its educational activities.


Michael D. Cabana, MD, MPH - Chair

Professor of Pediatrics, Epidemiology & Biostatistics
Chief, Division of General Pediatrics
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

Dr. Cabana discloses that he is a consultant for BioGaia, Genentech, Inc., Nestlé Nutrition, and Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. He is also on the speakers’ bureau for Merck & Co, Inc.

Ardythe L. Morrow, PhD
Director, Human Milk Research Laboratory
Professor, Departments of Environmental Health, Pediatrics, and Nutrition
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, OH

Dr. Morrow has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Philip M. Sherman, MD, FRCPC
Hospital for Sick Children
Staff Gastroenterologist
Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
Professor of Paediatrics, Microbiology, Nutritional Sciences, and Dentistry
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Dr. Sherman discloses that he is on the speakers’ bureaus for Mead Johnson Nutrition and Nestlé Nutrition.

Accredited Provider Disclosure

Haymarket Medical Education staff involved in the planning and content review of this activity have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.




AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)TM

Accreditation Statement

Haymarket Medical Education is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Designation Statement

Haymarket Medical Education designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM  . Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.




CPEU Credit

Accreditation Statement

The following activity has been approved by the ACCME, whose approval is recognized by the Commission on Dietetic Registration and, as such, RDs/DTRs will be able to receive 1.00 CPEU.

Additional Credit Information

Physician Assistant Continuing Education
AAPA accepts certificates of participation for educational activities certified for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM  from organizations accredited by ACCME or a recognized state medical society. PAs may receive a maximum of 1.00 Category 1 Credit for completing this activity.

Nurse Practitioner Continuing Education
The American Academy of Nurse Practitioners Certification Program (AANPCP) accepts certificates of participation for educational activities certified for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM  from organizations accredited by ACCME. Individuals are responsible for checking with the AANPCP for further guidelines.

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

This CME activity may or may not discuss investigational, unapproved, or off-label use of drugs. Participants are advised to consult prescribing information for any products discussed. The information provided in this CME activity is for continuing medical education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent medical judgment of a physician relative to diagnostic and treatment options for a specific patient's medical condition.


The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of Haymarket Medical Education and Nestlé Nutrition Institute. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.

If you have any questions relating to the accreditation of this activity, please contact HME at


To obtain credit, a score of 70% or better on the post-test is required. This activity is offered at no cost to participants. Please proceed with the activity until you have successfully completed this program, answered all test questions, completed the post-test and evaluation, and have received a digital copy of your credit certificate. Your online certificate will be saved on myCME within your Profile/CME History, which you can access at any time.

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Hardware and Software Requirements
  • A computer with an internet connection
  • Internet Browser: Internet Explorer 7.x or higher, Firefox 4.x or higher, Safari 2.x or higher, or any other W3C standards compliant browser
  • Additional Software: Adobe Flash Player and/or an HTML 5 capable browser maybe required for video or audio playback. PowerPoint or Adobe Acrobat Reader may occasionally be required
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