Rotavirus Prevention Tool Kit


The Rotavirus Prevention Tool Kit includes practical resources and tools for the clinician that can be readily used to enhance patient care and communication.

This program is supported by an educational grant from Merck & Co., Inc.



CME Activity

Rotavirus Prevention: Taking Every Opportunity to Reduce the Burden of Disease

Parent Resources

Immunization FAQs (from the CDC)

Immunization Schedule—Ages 0-6 Years (Parents Version)

Rotavirus Questions and Answers (from the Immunization Action Coalition)

Rotavirus-What You Need to Know (from the CDC)

Spanish language version:
Rotavirus-Lo Que Usted Debe Saber (from the CDC)

Vaccine Safety (from the American Academy of Pediatrics)

Unprotected—Matthys family story

Unprotected—Peete family story

Click here for all parent resources as one PDF


External links:

CDC: Parents Guide to Childhood Immunization, 2010 (CDC)
This detailed, 64-page, full-color booklet, illustrated with children's artwork, helps parents and caregivers learn about the role vaccines play in helping keep children healthy. (Booklet can be read online, downloaded, or print copies can be ordered free of charge from the CDC.)
www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/parents-guide

CDC: Create a Vaccine Schedule for Your Child (0 to 6 years)
This simple online tool lets you select the child's birth date to create a complete, customized list of recommended immunizations.
www2a.cdc.gov/nip/kidstuff/newscheduler_le

CDC: Catch-up Immunization Scheduler

A downloadable program to track skipped or missing vaccines.
www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/scheduler/catchup.htm

Immunization Action Coalition

IAC is a nonprofit organization that promotes immunization for all people against vaccine-preventable diseases. These websites offer educational materials, photos, and video clips for parents, healthcare professionals, the media, and the general public.
www.immunize.org/ and www.vaccineinformation.org/

Vaccine
Education Center (VEC)
The goal of the VEC at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia is to accurate­ly communicate the facts about each childhood vaccine.
www.vaccine.chop.edu


VEC publishes a monthly vaccine e-newsletter for parents titled "Parents PACK." For more information or to subscribe, visit www.vaccine.chop.edu/parents.

Clinician Resources

Guidelines

CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) General Recommendations on Immunization

ACIP Recommendations Prevention of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis
(To see Erratum, please visit: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5933a6.htm.)

CDC Statement Regarding Rotarix® and RotaTeq® Rotavirus Vaccines and Intussusception

Immunization Information Systems Fact Sheet


Practice Tools


Recommended Immunization Schedule, Ages 0-6 Years

Catch-up Immunization Schedule

Standing Orders for Rotavirus Vaccine

Vaccination Screening Questionnaire

Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting Form

Click here for all practice tools as one PDF

Expert Reviews

Dennehy PH. Rotavirus vaccines: an overview. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21(1):198-208

Marshall GS. Rotavirus disease and prevention through vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28(4):355-362

Click here for both expert reviews as one PDF

External links:

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
AAP's childhood immunization website contains information for both parents and clinicians.
www.aap.org/immunization

Assessment, Feedback, Incentives, and Exchange (AFIX)

CDC quality improvement strategy to raise immunization coverage levels and improve standards of practices at the provider level.
www.cdc.gov/vaccines/programs/afix/default.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The information on this website ranges from official vaccine recommendations for healthcare professionals to information for the general public about vaccines.
www.cdc.gov/vaccines

Comprehensive Clinic Assessment Software Application (CoCASA)

CoCASA is a tool for assessing immunization practices. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the AFIX strategy and can be used for immunization assessments across the lifespan.
www.cdc.gov/vaccines/programs/cocasa/default.htm

Every Child by Two (ECBT)

Each website contains a broad array of educational materials and information about vaccines, their safety, vaccine research and science, vaccine misperceptions, and many other topics to help clinicians and parents.
www.ecbt.org
and www.vaccinateyourbaby.org

Immunization Action Coalition (IAC)

IAC is a nonprofit organization that promotes immunization for all people against vaccine-preventable diseases. These Web sites offer educational materials, photos, and video clips for parents, healthcare professionals, the media, and the general public.
www.immunize.org/ and www.vaccineinformation.org

National Network for Immunization Information (NNii)
NNii provides current, science-based, extensively reviewed information to healthcare professionals, the media, policy makers, and the public.
www.immunizationinfo.org

Vaccines for Children Program

Links to provider information and forms, including eligibility and registration requirements.
www.cdc.gov/vaccines/programs/vfc/providers/default.htm

Monograph References

External links to original sources or Pub Med citations/abstracts as available.

1. Vesikari T, Matson DO, Dennehy P, et al. Safety and efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(1):23-33 (FREE FULL TEXT).
2. Vesikari T, Karvonen A, Prymula R, et al. Efficacy of human rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 2 years of life in European infants: randomised, double-blind controlled study. Lancet. 2007;370(9601):1757-1763 (FREE FULL TEXT).
3. Ruiz-Palacios GM, Pérez-Schael I, Velázquez FR, et al; Human Rotavirus Vaccine Study Group. Safety and efficacy of an attenuated vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(1):11-22 (FREE FULL TEXT).
4. Linhares AC, Velázquez FR, Pérez-Schael I, et al. Efficacy and safety of an oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 2 years of life in Latin American infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study. Lancet. 2008 Apr 5;371(9619):1181-1189 (FREE FULL TEXT).
5. Madhi SA, Cunliffe NA, Steele D, et al. Effect of human rotavirus vaccine on severe diarrhea in African infants. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(4):289-298 (FREE FULL TEXT).
6. Armah GE, Sow SO, Breiman RF, et al. Efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9741):606-614. Epub 2010 Aug 6 (FREE FULL TEXT).
7. Zaman K, Dang DA, Victor JC, et al. Efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in Asia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9741):615-623. Epub 2010 Aug 6 (FREE FULL TEXT).
8. Patel MM, Steele D, Gentsch JR, et al. Real-world impact of rotavirus vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:S1-S5 (FREE FULL TEXT).
9. World Health Organization. Estimated rotavirus deaths for children under 5 years of age. 2004, 527 000. http://www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/burden/rotavirus_estimates/en/index.html. Accessed February 17, 2011.
10. World Health Organization. Meeting of the Immunization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts, April 2009—conclusions and recommendations. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2009;84(23):220-236.
11. PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health). Rotavirus vaccine development.  http://www.path.org/projects/rotavirus_vaccine_projects.php. Accessed February 17, 2011.
12. Marshall GS. Rotavirus disease and prevention through vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28(4):355-362.
13. Dennehy PH. Rotavirus vaccines: an overview. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21(1):198-208.
14. Patel MM, Tate JE, Selvarangan R, et al. Routine laboratory testing data for surveillance of rotavirus hospitalizations to evaluate the impact of vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(10):914-919 (ABSTRACT).
15. Raebel MA, Ou BS. Rotavirus disease and its prevention in infants and children. Pharmacotherapy. 1999;19(11):1279-1295 (ABSTRACT).
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis among infants and children. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2009;58(RR-2):1-25. www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5802a1.htm. Accessed February 17, 2011.
17. Charles MD, Holman RC, Curns AT, et al. Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis in the United States, 1993-2002. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25(6):489-493 (ABSTRACT).
18. Parashar UD, Burton A, Lanata C, et al. Global mortality associated with rotavirus disease among children in 2004. J Infect Dis. 2009;200(Suppl 1):S9-S15 (ABSTRACT).
19. Parashar UD, Holman RC, Clarke MJ, et al. Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus diarrhea in the United States, 1993 through 1995: surveillance based on the new ICD-9-CM rotavirus-specific diagnostic code. J Infect Dis. 1997;177:13-17 (FREE FULL TEXT).
20. Fischer TK, Viboud C, Parashar U, et al. Hospitalizations and deaths from diarrhea and rotavirus among children <5 years of age in the United States, 1993-2003. J Infect Dis. 2007;195(8):1117-1125 (FREE FULL TEXT).
21. Santos N, Hoshino Y. Global distribution of rotavirus serotypes/genotypes and its implication for the development and implementation of an effective vaccine. Rev Med Virol. 2005;15:29-56 (ABSTRACT).
22. Griffin DD, Kirkwood CD, Parashar UD, et al. Surveillance of rotavirus strains in the United States: identification of unusual strains. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38(7):2784-2787 (FREE FULL TEXT).
23. Bhan MK, Lew JF, Sazawal S, et al. Protection conferred by neonatal rotavirus infection against subsequent diarrhea. J Infect Dis. 1993;168:282-287 (ABSTRACT).
24. Bresee JS, Parashar UD, Widdowson MA, et al. Update on rotavirus vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24(11):947-952 (ABSTRACT).
25. Velázquez FR, Matson DO, Calva JJ, et al. Rotavirus infection in infants as protection against subsequent infections. N Engl J Med. 1996;335(14):1022-1028 (FREE FULL TEXT).
26. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases. Prevention of rotavirus disease: updated guidelines for use of rotavirus vaccine. Pediatrics. 2009;123(5):1412-1420 (FREE FULL TEXT).
27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rotavirus vaccine (RotaShield®) and intussusception. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/rotavirus/vac-rotashield-historical.htm#rotashield-questions. Accessed February 17, 2011.
28. Peter G, Myers MG; National Vaccine Advisory Committee; National Vaccine Program Office. Intussusception, rotavirus, and oral vaccines: summary of a workshop. Pediatrics. 2002;110(6):e67 (FREE FULL TEXT).
29. Ward RL, Bernstein DI, Smith VE, et al. Rotavirus immunoglobulin a responses stimulated by each of 3 doses of a quadrivalent human/bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2004;189(12):2290-2293. Epub 2004 May 25 (FREE FULL TEXT).
30. Food and Drug Administration. February 3, 2006 Approval Letter - RotaTeq. http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm142303.htm. Accessed February 17, 2011.
31. Bernstein D, Sack D, Resinger K, et al. Second-year follow-up evaluation of live, attenuated human rotavirus vaccine 89-12 in healthy infants. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:1487-1489 (FREE FULL TEXT).
32. De Vos B, Vesikari T, Linhares AC, et al. A rotavirus vaccine for prophylaxis of infants against rotavirus gastroenteritis. Ped Infect Dis J. 2004;23(10 Suppl):S179-S182 (FREE FULL TEXT).
33. Phua KB, Emmanuel SC, Goh P, et al. A rotavirus vaccine for infants: the Asian experience. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2006;35(1):38-44 (FREE FULL TEXT).
34. Barnes GL, Lund JS, Mitchell SV, et al. Early phase II trial of human rotavirus vaccine candidate RV3. Vaccine. 2002 Jul 26;20(23-24):2950-2966 (ABSTRACT).
35. Moon SS, Wang Y, Shane AL, et al. Inhibitory effect of breast milk on infectivity of live oral rotavirus vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29(10):919-923 (FREE FULL TEXT).
36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rotavirus vaccination coverage among infants aged 5 months. Immunization Information System Sentinel Sites, United States, June 2006-June 2009. MMWR. 2010;59(17):521-524.
37. Curns AT, Steiner CA, Barrett M, et al. Reduction in acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations among US children after introduction of rotavirus vaccine: analysis of hospital discharge data from 18 US states. J Infect Dis. 2010;201(11):1617-1624 (FREE FULL TEXT).
38. Tate JE, Cortese MM, Payne DC, et al. Uptake, impact, and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the United States. Review of the first 3 years of postlicensure data. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:S56-S60 (ABSTRACT).
39. Hull JJ, Teel EN, Kerin TK, et al. United States rotavirus strain surveillance from 2005 to 2008: genotype prevalence before and after vaccine introduction. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:S42-S47. (ABSTRACT).
40. Curns AT, Panazzo CA, Tate JE, et al. Remarkable postvaccination spatiotemporal changes in United State rotavirus activity. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:S54-S55 (ABSTRACT).
41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reduction in rotavirus after vaccine introduction—United States, 2000-2009. MMWR. 2009;58(41):1146-1149. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5841a2.htm. Accessed February 17, 2011.
42. Tate JE, Mutuc J, Panozzo CA, et al. Sustained decline in rotavirus detections in the United States following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:S30-S34 (ABSTRACT).
43. Correia JB, Patel MM, Nakagomi O, et al. Effectiveness of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) against severe diarrhea caused by serotypically unrelated G2P[4] strains in Brazil. J Infect Dis. 20101;201(3):363-369 (FREE FULL TEXT).
44. Carvalho-Costa FA, Volotão Ede M, de Assis RM, et al. Laboratory-based rotavirus surveillance during the introduction of a vaccination program, Brazil, 2005-2009. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(1 Suppl):S35-S41 (ABSTRACT).
45. Kirkwood CD, Boniface K, Barnes GL, et al. Distribution of rotavirus genotypes after introduction of rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix® and RotaTeq®, into the National Immunization Program of Australia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30(1 Suppl):S48-S53 (ABSTRACT).
46. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Statement regarding Rotarix® and RotaTeq® rotavirus vaccines and intussusception. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/rotavirus/intussusception-studies-acip.htm. Accessed February 17, 2011.
47. Food and Drug Administration. Update on Recommendations for the Use of Rotavirus Vaccines. May 14, 2010. http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm212140.htm. Accessed February 17, 2011.
48. American Academy of Family Physicians. 2011 recommended childhood immunization schedule. http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/clinical/immunizationres.html. Accessed February 17, 2011.
49. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Addition of severe combined immunodeficiency as a contraindication for administration of rotavirus vaccine. MMWR. 2010;59(22):687-688.
50. Luman ET, McCauley MM, Stokley S, et al. Timeliness of childhood immunizations. Pediatrics. 2002;110:935-939 (FREE FULL TEXT).
51. Luman ET, Barker LE, Shaw KM, et al. Timeliness of childhood vaccinations in the United States: days undervaccinated and number of vaccines delayed. JAMA. 2005;293(10):1204-1211 (FREE FULL TEXT).
52. Robison SG, Kurosky SK, Young CM, et al. Immunization milestones: a more comprehensive picture of age-appropriate vaccination. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:916525. Epub 2010 May 23 (FREE FULL TEXT).
53. Gust D, Weber D, Weintraub E, et al. Physicians who do and do not recommend children get all vaccinations. J Health Commun. 2008;13:573-582 (FREE FULL TEXT).
54. American Academy of Pediatrics. Practice Management Online. http://practice.aap.org/content.aspx?aid=2334&nodeID=2002. Accessed February 17, 2011.
55. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccines for Children Program. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/programs/vfc/default.htm. Accessed February 17, 2011.
56. Boom JA, Tate JE, Sahni LC, et al. Effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in a large urban population in the United States. Pediatrics. 2010;125:e199-e207 (FREE FULL TEXT).

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