Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice, with a prevalence that ranges from 1% to 30% depending upon the care setting. Recent studies have estimated it to be present in three million to six million individuals in the United States, with a corresponding cost of $1.6 billion to 3.6 billion annually. Although many cases are mild and relatively asymptomatic, hyponatremia and its treatment can either directly or indirectly contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality. Although the risks that arise from severe hyponatremia and its overly rapid correction are well recognized, even mild and asymptomatic hyponatremia has been found to be associated with gait instability, falls, an increased risk for fractures, and impairment of attention.
This activity has been designed to meet the educational needs of nephrologists involved in the care of patients with electrolyte disorders.
After completing the activity, the participant should be better able to:
- Define accepted criteria for syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) diagnosis and associated symptoms in patients diagnosed with hyponatremia.
- Assess patients who have SIADH and resultant hyponatremia and recommend appropriate therapy.
- Identify relevant questions relating to vaptans therapy.
AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)TM
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and Policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of Medical Education Resources (MER) and Haymarket Media, Inc. MER is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
Medical Education Resources designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Mitchell H. Rosner, MD, FACP
Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Nephrology
Acting Chairman, Department of Medicine
University of Virginia, Charlottesville
Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
Medical Education Resources ensures balance, independence, objectivity, and scientific rigor in all our educational programs. In accordance with this policy, MER identifies conflicts of interest with its instructors, content managers, and other individuals who are in a position to control the content of an activity. Conflicts are resolved by MER to ensure all scientific research referred to, reported, or used in a CME activity conforms to the generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and analysis. MER is committed to providing its learners with high-quality CME activities that promote improvements or quality in health care and not a commercial interest.
The faculty reported the following financial relationships with commercial interests whose products or services may be mentioned in this CME activity:
Mitchell H. Rosner, MD, FACP, has no financial relationships to disclose.
Publishing Staff Disclosures
The content managers, Jody A. Charnow and Marina Galanakis of Haymarket Media, Inc., and Julie Johnson, PharmD, Medical Education Resources, have disclosed that they have no relevant financial relationships or conflicts of interest relating directly or indirectly to this educational activity.
Disclosure of Unlabeled Use
This educational activity may contain discussion of approved and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. Medical Education Resources, Inc. (MER), and Haymarket Medical Education (HME) do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.
The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of MER and HME. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.
The content and views presented in this educational activity are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Abbott Laboratories, Medical Education Resources or Haymarket Media, Inc. The authors have disclosed if there is any discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA in their presentations. The opinions expressed in this educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of Abbott Laboratories, Medical Education Resources, or Haymarket Media, Inc. Before prescribing any medicine, primary references and full prescribing information should be consulted. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient’s conditions and possible contraindications on dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management.
This program is sponsored by Medical Education Resources, Inc., and produced by Haymarket Medical Education.
If you have any questions relating to the accreditation of this activity, please contact:
Medical Education Resources, Inc.
1500 West Canal Court
Littleton, CO 80120-5615
To obtain credit, a post-test score of 70% or better is required. This CME is offered at no cost to participants. Please proceed with the activity until you have successfully completed this program, answered all test questions, completed the post-test survey, and have received a digital copy of your credit certificate. Your online certificate will be saved on myCME.com within your Profile/Exam History, which you can then access at any time.
WINDOWS PC SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:
266-MHz Pentium II; Windows 98 or higher; 64 MB RAM; 800 x 600 screen resolution
set for “High Color (16-Bit)”; Macromedia Flash Player 6 or higher.
MACINTOSH® SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:
Power Mac g3 at 300 MHz; System 8.5 or higher (excluding Mac OSX); 96 MB RAM; 20
MB minimum hard disk space available; 800 x 600 screen resolution set to “Thousands
of Colors”; Macromedia Flash Player 6 or higher.