November 2017 Briefing - Infectious Disease

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for November 2017. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Incidence of HIV Dropped From 1999 to 2016 in Uganda

THURSDAY, Nov. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of HIV infection declined significantly in Uganda between 1999 and 2016, according to a study published in the Nov. 30 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Fecal Microbial Transplant by Oral Capsule Noninferior for CDI

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI), fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) with oral capsules is noninferior to FMT by colonoscopy, according to a study published in the Nov. 28 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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CDC: HIV Being Diagnosed Sooner After Infection

TUESDAY, Nov. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- HIV is being diagnosed sooner after infection than previously reported, according to a Nov. 28 press release issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Clinician Denial of Patient Requests Impacts Satisfaction

TUESDAY, Nov. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Clinician denial of some types of tests requested by patients is associated with worse patient satisfaction with the clinician, according to a study published online Nov. 27 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Value-Based Payment Modifier Not Tied to Practice Performance

TUESDAY, Nov. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The Value-Based Payment Modifier (VM) is not associated with performance differences between practices serving higher-risk and lower-risk patients, according to a study published online Nov. 28 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Escalation Noted in Incidence of Scarlet Fever in England

TUESDAY, Nov. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There has been a recent escalation in the incidence of scarlet fever in England, according to a study published online Nov. 27 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Sex, Race, Age Disparities in Survival for HPV-Linked Cancer

TUESDAY, Nov. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, there are large disparities in survival based on sex, race, and age, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in Cancer.

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Practice Variation in Treatment for Bronchiolitis in Infants

TUESDAY, Nov. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For infants with bronchiolitis, the use of evidence-based supportive therapies (EBSTs) varies by hospital site, according to a study published online Nov. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Risk of ≥CIN3 Drops With Negative HPV, Cytology Co-Tests

TUESDAY, Nov. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The five-year risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3), adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer (≥CIN3) decrease after each successive negative human papillomavirus (HPV) and cytology co-testing, according to a study published online Nov. 27 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Considerable Costs Incurred in Response to Single Measles Cases

MONDAY, Nov. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Single measles cases trigger coordinated public health action that is associated with considerable costs, according to research published in the Nov. 24 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Essay Adds to Discourse on Impact of Suggestive Jokes

MONDAY, Nov. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Seemingly benign, recurring patterns of joking around a single theme (joke cycles) can contribute to humorizing and legitimizing sexual misconduct, according to an essay published online Nov. 12 in Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies.

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New Workflows Have Potential to Address Provider Burnout

MONDAY, Nov. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- New solutions are needed to address burnout among health care team members, yet, in a catch-22 situation for health industry leaders, change fatigue contributes to burnout, according to a Vocera Communications report entitled In Pursuit of Resilience, Well-Being, and Joy in Healthcare.

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Clinician Suspicion Minimally Accurate for Lyme Disease

MONDAY, Nov. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Clinician suspicion has minimal accuracy for the diagnosis of Lyme disease, according to a study published online Nov. 24 in Pediatrics.

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Raw Flour Can Be Source of Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Raw flour can be a source of outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections, according to a study published in the Nov. 23 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Female Physicians' Spouses More Likely to Work

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Spouses of female physicians are on average more educated and work more hours outside the home than spouses of male physicians, according to a research letter published online Nov. 21 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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CDC Issues Warning on Contaminated Raw Milk

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals who may have consumed contaminated raw milk and milk products from the Udder Milk company are urged to seek medical care, according to a report published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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High Costs Associated With Physician Burnout, Attrition

TUESDAY, Nov. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians who are experiencing burnout are more than twice as likely to leave their organization within two years, and this is associated with significant economic costs, according to a report from the American Medical Association.

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Best Practice Advice Issued for Hep B Vaccination, Screening

TUESDAY, Nov. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Best practice advice statements from the American College of Physicians and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, published online Nov. 21 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, encourage hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening in high-risk populations, vaccination of all unvaccinated at-risk adults, and linkage to care for HBV-positive patients.

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Distinct Features for Drug Use-Related Endophthalmitis

MONDAY, Nov. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with injection drug use (IDU) endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) are younger, with fewer comorbidities, and have more improvement in visual acuity after intervention compared with non-IDU EE patients, according to a research letter published online Nov. 16 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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SMS Reminders Moderately Effective for Flu Vaccination

MONDAY, Nov. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Short message service (SMS) reminders are a moderately effective way to increase the rate of influenza vaccination among high-risk patients, according to a study published in the November/December issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Many Health Care Providers Work While Sick

FRIDAY, Nov. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- More than 40 percent of health care personnel (HCP) with influenza-like illness (ILI) work while ill, according to a study published in the November issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

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Simple Checklist Can Identify Useful Clinical Practice Guidelines

FRIDAY, Nov. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A simple, easy-to-use checklist, the Guideline Trustworthiness, Relevance, and Utility Scoring Tool (G-TRUST), can identify useful clinical practice guidelines, according to a study published in the September/October issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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HPV Vaccine Tied to Reduced Respiratory Papillomatosis Rate

THURSDAY, Nov. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP) in Australia decreased from 2012 to 2016 after implementation of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program for females aged 12 to 26 years in 2007-2009, according to a study published online Nov. 9 in The Journal of Infectious Diseases.

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Accurate Diagnosis Seen With Photographs of Skin Conditions

THURSDAY, Nov. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Smartphone photographs of pediatric skin conditions taken by parents are of sufficient quality to allow accurate diagnosis, according to a study published online Nov. 15 in JAMA Dermatology.

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Poorer Neuropsychological Test Scores for HIV-Positive

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-positive individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have poorer neuropsychological test scores than controls but no significant neuropsychological decline over time, according to a study published online Nov. 13 in JAMA Neurology.

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More Laboratory Tests Performed at Major Teaching Hospitals

TUESDAY, Nov. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For inpatients with a primary diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia or cellulitis, significantly more laboratory tests are performed per day at major teaching hospitals versus nonteaching hospitals, according to a study published online Nov. 13 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Drug Combination Cost-Effective for Cesarean Prophylaxis

TUESDAY, Nov. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The addition of azithromycin to cephalosporin for cesarean delivery infection prophylaxis is cost-effective and leads to better maternal outcomes, according to a study published online Nov. 7 in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Outbreaks Linked to Drinking Water Mainly Due to Legionella

TUESDAY, Nov. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Most drinking water-associated waterborne disease outbreaks and waterborne disease outbreaks associated with environmental or undetermined exposure to water are due to Legionella, according to two studies published online Nov. 9 in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Vaccination Coverage High for Children Aged 19 to 35 Months

THURSDAY, Nov. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Vaccination coverage has remained above 90 percent for many vaccinations among young children, and progress is being made toward immunization information systems (IISs) program goals, according to two studies published online Nov. 2 in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Doctors Have Extra Two Weeks to Preview Performance Data

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians have two extra weeks to preview their 2016 performance information as a result of a mistake related to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Physician Compare online resource, according to a report published by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

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Glycosylation Differences in Egg-Adapted Vaccines May Cut Impact

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Differences in glycosylation between H3N2 egg-adapted vaccines and circulating strains probably reduced vaccine effectiveness during the 2016-2017 influenza season, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Evidence Scant for Treatment of Cough With the Common Cold

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There has been little change in the treatment recommendations for cough due to the common cold since publication of guidelines in 2006, according to a review published online Nov. 7 in Chest.

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Increases in U.S. Health Spending Tied to Health Service Price

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Factors including increases in health care service price and intensity are associated with increases in U.S. health care spending from 1996 to 2013, according to a study published online Nov. 7 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Intensity of Exercise Affects Impact on Mortality Risk

TUESDAY, Nov. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Total physical activity (PA) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) are inversely associated with mortality, though light-intensity PA and sedentary behavior are not associated with mortality, according to a research letter published online Nov. 6 in Circulation.

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Info Via Social Media Apps May Increase Vaccine Acceptance

TUESDAY, Nov. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Providing women with web-based vaccine information with social media applications during pregnancy is associated with a greater proportion of infants up-to-date on their vaccines, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in Pediatrics.

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Influenza Vaccines in Pediatric ERs Likely Cost-Effective

TUESDAY, Nov. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza vaccination in the pediatric emergency department (PED) setting appears to be a cost-effective strategy, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Pricing Interventions Increase Sales, Intake of Healthy Foods

FRIDAY, Nov. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pricing interventions seem to improve access to healthy food and beverage options with increases in stocking and sales of these items, according to a review published online Nov. 2 in Preventing Chronic Disease.

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Driving Impairment Warnings Often Not Given With Rx Meds

THURSDAY, Nov. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Not all prescription drug users report receiving warnings about driving impairment, according to a study published online Nov. 1 in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.

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CMS Launches Initiative to Examine Impact of Regulations

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has launched an initiative to examine which provider regulations should be discarded or revamped amid concerns that the regulations are reducing the amount of time that physicians spend with patients, according to an article published in Modern Healthcare.

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Promising Pneumonia Vaccine Under Development

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A pneumonia vaccine under development provides the "most comprehensive coverage" to date and alleviates antimicrobial concerns, according to a study published online Oct. 18 in Science Advances.

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Hepatitis B Viral Load, Surface Antigen May ID Liver Cancer Risk

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Elevated levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are associated with increased risks of liver cancer, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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