November 2016 Briefing - Pediatrics

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for November 2016. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Infant Diagnosed With First Case of Zika-Related Glaucoma

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The first case of an infant who developed glaucoma after being exposed to the Zika virus while in the womb has been reported by an international team of researchers. The case was reported online Nov. 30 in Ophthalmology.

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NIAAA Two-Question Alcohol Screen Valid in Pediatric ERs

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) two-question alcohol screen is valid for use within pediatric emergency departments (PEDs), according to a study published online Nov. 29 in Pediatrics.

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No Link for Maternal Flu Infection, Increased ASD Risk

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal influenza infection during pregnancy is not associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a study published online Nov. 28 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Preemies Often Receive Gastroesophageal Reflux Meds

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Thirty-seven percent of premature infants receive gastroesophageal reflux (GER) medications, with more than three-quarters initiating medication use after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), according to a study published online Nov. 23 in Pediatrics.

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As Prices Soar, ADA Calls for Access to Affordable Insulin

TUESDAY, Nov. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In early November, Sen. Bernie Sanders, the Vermont Democrat, pointed out that certain insulins had risen from $21 a vial in 1996 to $255 a vial in 2016.

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Clinical Practice Guideline on UTI in Febrile Young Reaffirmed

TUESDAY, Nov. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The 2011 clinical practice guideline (CPG) on urinary tract infection (UTI) in young children has been reaffirmed, according to a report published online Nov. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Renal Outcomes Up With BP <120/70 in T1DM

TUESDAY, Nov. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with type 1 diabetes, blood pressure (BP) of <120/70 mm Hg is associated with a substantially reduced risk of adverse renal outcomes, according to a study published online Nov. 21 in Diabetes Care.

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AAP Urges Clinician Counseling of Safe Participation in Martial Arts

MONDAY, Nov. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In a clinical report published online Nov. 28 in Pediatrics, recommendations are presented for pediatricians to encourage safe participation in martial arts for children and adolescents.

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Pediatricians Can Play a Role in Helping Children of Divorce

MONDAY, Nov. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians have a role in helping children deal with parental separation or divorce, according to a clinical report published online Nov. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Recommended Tx Adherence Low in Pediatric Acute Seizure

MONDAY, Nov. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For pediatric patients transported for an acute seizure, adherence to recommended treatment is poor, according to a study published online Nov. 23 in Pediatrics.

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Mortality Rate From Infectious Diseases Holding Steady in U.S.

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. mortality rate from infectious diseases is about the same now as it was in 1980, but some of the specific disease threats have changed over the years, according to a research letter published in the Nov. 22/29 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Only Two Doses of HPV Vaccine Necessary for Younger Teens

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Two doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, rather than three, can effectively protect younger teens against the virus, according to a study published online Nov. 21 in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The study was one of a number evaluated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention earlier this year, which led to the CDC's revised guidelines in October.

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Mental Distress Common in Survivors of Teen, Young Adult CA

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer are more likely to have mental distress than individuals without cancer, but most do not talk to mental health professionals, according to a study published online Nov. 17 in Cancer.

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Rising Rx, ER Prices Pushing U.S. Health Care Spending Up

TUESDAY, Nov. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Privately insured Americans spent nearly 5 percent more on health care last year than in 2014; this increase was significantly more than that seen in previous years and reflects higher costs for prescription drugs, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations, according to a report published Nov. 22 by the Health Care Cost Institute.

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Computer Order Entry System Ups Antimicrobial Policy Compliance

TUESDAY, Nov. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Use of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system can improve compliance with antimicrobial restriction policies, according to a study published online Nov. 16 in the Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research.

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Few Preschoolers Receiving Tx for Mood, Behavioral Disorders

TUESDAY, Nov. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Most preschoolers with mood, behavior, and social disorders would benefit from non-drug therapies, but few receive this type of help, according to a new policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published online Nov. 21 in Pediatrics.

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Retail Clinics Don't Reduce ER Visits for Minor Ailments

MONDAY, Nov. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Having retail health clinics near hospitals does not reduce emergency department visits for minor health problems, according to a study published online Nov. 10 in the Annals of Emergency Medicine.

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Playing 'Choking Game' Alone Can Indicate Heightened Suicide Risk

MONDAY, Nov. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- About 4 percent of U.S. teens surveyed admit to trying the "choking game," a potentially deadly game of temporary strangulation, and young people who play the game alone are much more likely to harbor thoughts of suicide, according to a study published online Nov. 21 in Pediatrics.

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IV, Oral Antibiotics Compared for Complicated Pneumonia

THURSDAY, Nov. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For children with complicated pneumonia, peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) and oral antibiotic administration post-discharge have similar rates of treatment failure, according to a study published online Nov. 17 in Pediatrics.

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Rate of ADHD Diagnoses Stabilizing Among Preschoolers

TUESDAY, Nov. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The rate of diagnoses for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among U.S. preschoolers has leveled off, according to a study published online Nov. 15 in Pediatrics.

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Depression Rates Up Among Adolescents, Particularly Females

TUESDAY, Nov. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Depression is on the rise among American teens and young adults, with adolescent girls showing the greatest vulnerability, according to research published online Nov. 14 in Pediatrics.

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Physical Punishment of Children Declining in the United States

TUESDAY, Nov. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Spanking and hitting children to discipline them has been on the decline among U.S. parents -- rich and poor alike -- since 1988, according to research published online Nov. 14 in Pediatrics.

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Zika Virus Can Cause Retinal Damage in Infants

FRIDAY, Nov. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For infants with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause retinal damage, which can be seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT), according to a study published online Nov. 10 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Using iPads to Treat Amblyopia Produces Mixed Results

FRIDAY, Nov. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Does playing video games on an iPad work better than standard eye patching for improving vision in children with amblyopia? Two new studies published online in JAMA Ophthalmology reach seemingly contradictory answers.

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HR Capabilities Positively Linked to Quality of Patient Care

FRIDAY, Nov. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Human resource (HR) capabilities are positively associated with quality of patient care, with the relationship mediated by proactive work, according to a study published recently in Human Resource Management.

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Blood Test May Help ID Risk of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

THURSDAY, Nov. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A prenatal blood test may help identify infants at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, according to a study published online Nov. 9 in PLOS ONE.

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U/S IDs Response to Propranolol in Infantile Hemangioma

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with infantile hemangiomas, serial ultrasonography can be used to show response to propranolol treatment, according to a study published online Nov. 4 in the International Journal of Dermatology.

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Survival Lower for Night CPR Events in Children

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Hospitalized children have reduced survival odds with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) events occurring at night compared to other times of the day, according to a study published online Nov. 7 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Report of Recurrent Immune Thrombocytopenia After Flu Shot

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In a report published online Nov. 8 in Pediatrics, authors present the case of recurrent immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) after influenza vaccination.

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Donor Milk Doesn't Improve Neurodevelopment Outcomes

TUESDAY, Nov. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For infants with very-low-birth weight (VLBW), use of supplemental donor milk does not improve neurodevelopment compared with placebo at 18 months' corrected age, according to a study published in the Nov. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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School-Required Tdap Vaccination Can Up HPV Immunization

TUESDAY, Nov. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Schools that require routine vaccines as a condition of attendance have higher rates of vaccination, including higher rates of immunization for the human papillomavirus (HPV), and children at these schools are also more likely to get recommended tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) and meningitis vaccines, according to research published online Nov. 8 in Pediatrics.

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Long-Term Health Not Improved for Childhood Cancer Survivors

TUESDAY, Nov. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Despite three decades of advancements in treating children with cancer, patients who survive into adulthood don't report better physical or mental health than their counterparts who were treated years ago, according to research published online Nov. 8 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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High Transepidermal Water Loss in Infancy Linked to Eczema

TUESDAY, Nov. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- High transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in infancy is associated with atopic eczema (AE) at age 2 years, according to a study published online Nov. 3 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

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Many States Lack 'Return-to-Learn' Concussion Laws

MONDAY, Nov. 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- All U.S. states have "return-to-play" laws designed to protect young athletes who've suffered a concussion, but as of May 2016, only eight states had "return-to-learn" laws aimed at managing children's concussion recovery, according to a review published online Nov. 7 in Pediatrics.

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School Grades May Be Affected by Anesthesia Before Age 4

MONDAY, Nov. 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children exposed to surgical anesthesia before the age of 4 may have slightly lower school grades and IQ scores in their late teen years, according to a study published online Nov. 7 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Five Strategies Can Reduce Risk of Medical Lawsuits

MONDAY, Nov. 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Five strategies can be employed by physicians in order to help reduce the risk of lawsuits, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Recommendations Updated for Meningococcal Vaccine in HIV

MONDAY, Nov. 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In the Nov. 4 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, new recommendations are presented for meningococcal conjugate vaccination among HIV-infected individuals.

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Low-Carb Diet Cuts Tx Effect of Glucagon in Hypoglycemia

FRIDAY, Nov. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with type 1 diabetes, a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) results in lower incremental rises in plasma glucose (PG) after mild hypoglycemia compared with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet (HCD), according to a study published online Oct. 21 in Diabetes Care.

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~30K Sports-Related Eye Injuries Yearly in U.S. Emergency Rooms

THURSDAY, Nov. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Paintball guns pose the greatest risk of vision loss among the sports most commonly associated with eye injuries, according to a study published online Nov. 3 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Review Identifies Features of Congenital Zika Infection

THURSDAY, Nov. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A distinctive phenotype of congenital Zika syndrome has been described in a review published online Nov. 3 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Vague Food Labels Can Place Patients With Allergies at Risk

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Shoppers are often confused by food labels that warn of potential allergens, and the consequences can be serious, according to research published online Nov. 1 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice.

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Impact of HbA1c, BMI Changes on Lipids Varies As Children Age

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As children age, the impact of changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol levels increases, according to a study published online Oct. 20 in Diabetes Care.

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Transient Topical Corticosteroids of Limited Use in Acne

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Transient addition of topical corticosteroids (TCS) to topical retinoids is not associated with meeting the primary end points of improvement in acne severity and mitigation of medication-induced irritation, according to a study published online Oct. 27 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

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USPSTF Reaffirms Obesity Screening Recs for Children 6+

TUESDAY, Nov. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors should screen children age 6 years and older for obesity, and offer them behavioral therapy to help them lose weight if necessary, new guidelines reassert.

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