November 2016 Briefing - Infectious Disease

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for November 2016. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

CDC: Needle Exchange Program Usage Up Significantly

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Although there was a significant increase in the use of syringe services programs -- more commonly known as needle exchange programs -- across the United States over the past decade, many injection drug users still don't always use sterile needles, according to a Vital Signs report published in the Nov. 29 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Infant Diagnosed With First Case of Zika-Related Glaucoma

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The first case of an infant who developed glaucoma after being exposed to the Zika virus while in the womb has been reported by an international team of researchers. The case was reported online Nov. 30 in Ophthalmology.

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No Link for Maternal Flu Infection, Increased ASD Risk

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal influenza infection during pregnancy is not associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a study published online Nov. 28 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Optimal MELD Threshold for HCV Tx Pre-Liver Transplant 23 to 27

TUESDAY, Nov. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with decompensated cirrhosis who are eligible for liver transplant (LT), the optimal model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) threshold below which they should receive HCV treatment is 23 to 27, according to a study published online Nov. 5 in Hepatology.

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Clinical Practice Guideline on UTI in Febrile Young Reaffirmed

TUESDAY, Nov. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The 2011 clinical practice guideline (CPG) on urinary tract infection (UTI) in young children has been reaffirmed, according to a report published online Nov. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Only Two Doses of HPV Vaccine Necessary for Younger Teens

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Two doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, rather than three, can effectively protect younger teens against the virus, according to a study published online Nov. 21 in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The study was one of a number evaluated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention earlier this year, which led to the CDC's revised guidelines in October.

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Mortality Rate From Infectious Diseases Holding Steady in U.S.

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. mortality rate from infectious diseases is about the same now as it was in 1980, but some of the specific disease threats have changed over the years, according to a research letter published in the Nov. 22/29 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Lean Six Methodology Can Cut Health Care-Linked Infections

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Application of the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology can reduce the risk of health care-associated infections (HAI) among patients undergoing surgical procedures, according to a study published online Nov. 18 in the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.

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High-Dose Vitamin D Cuts Acute Respiratory Infection in Elderly

TUESDAY, Nov. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For long-term care facility residents, high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation is associated with reduced incidence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) but increased incidence of falls, according to a study published online Nov. 16 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Four ER Visits for Adverse Drug Events Per 1,000 People

TUESDAY, Nov. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In 2013 to 2014, the estimated prevalence of emergency department visits for adverse drug events was four per 1,000 individuals, according to research published in the Nov. 22 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Rising Rx, ER Prices Pushing U.S. Health Care Spending Up

TUESDAY, Nov. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Privately insured Americans spent nearly 5 percent more on health care last year than in 2014; this increase was significantly more than that seen in previous years and reflects higher costs for prescription drugs, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations, according to a report published Nov. 22 by the Health Care Cost Institute.

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Computer Order Entry System Ups Antimicrobial Policy Compliance

TUESDAY, Nov. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Use of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system can improve compliance with antimicrobial restriction policies, according to a study published online Nov. 16 in the Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research.

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Drug-Resistant Infections Tied to Livestock-Associated Staph

MONDAY, Nov. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Workers at hog production facilities in the United States are developing skin infections from multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, according to a study published online Nov. 16 in PLOS ONE.

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Metformin Alters Gut Microbiota Composition in Diabetes

FRIDAY, Nov. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Metformin seems to alter gut microbiota composition, according to a study published online Nov. 14 in Diabetes Care.

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HOMA2-IR Tied to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in Hepatitis B

FRIDAY, Nov. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA2-IR) correlates with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, according to a study published online Nov. 11 in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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IV, Oral Antibiotics Compared for Complicated Pneumonia

THURSDAY, Nov. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For children with complicated pneumonia, peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) and oral antibiotic administration post-discharge have similar rates of treatment failure, according to a study published online Nov. 17 in Pediatrics.

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Vaginal Immune Response May Up Zika Risk in Women

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Vaginal tissue is particularly vulnerable to infection by RNA viruses, such as Zika, according to a study published online Nov. 16 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

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Ledipasvir-Sofosbuvir Safe for Kidney Recipients With HCV

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For kidney transplant recipients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 or 4 infection, treatment with ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for 12 or 24 weeks is safe and efficacious, according to a study published online Nov. 15 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Only Slightly Worse Disease Course for Bacterial LRI

TUESDAY, Nov. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with acute cough, those with bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) have a slightly worse disease course than those without an identified bacterial cause, according to research published in the November/December in the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Two-Drug Combo Promising for HIV Remission

FRIDAY, Nov. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Animal research with an experimental two-drug therapy could hold clues for creating long-term HIV remission, according to a report published online Nov. 9 in Nature.

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Zika Virus Can Cause Retinal Damage in Infants

FRIDAY, Nov. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For infants with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause retinal damage, which can be seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT), according to a study published online Nov. 10 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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HR Capabilities Positively Linked to Quality of Patient Care

FRIDAY, Nov. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Human resource (HR) capabilities are positively associated with quality of patient care, with the relationship mediated by proactive work, according to a study published recently in Human Resource Management.

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HIV Antibody VRC01 Shows Promise in Early Trials

THURSDAY, Nov. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Antibodies may keep the HIV virus in check and one day allow patients to stop taking antiretroviral drugs, according to research published online Nov. 9 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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DNA-Based Zika Vaccine Shows Protection Against Infection

THURSDAY, Nov. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental Zika vaccine shows promise, according to research published online Nov. 10 in npj Vaccines.

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PPI Use Doesn't Up Recurrence of Bacterial Peritonitis

THURSDAY, Nov. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with cirrhosis with previous spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is not associated with SBP recurrence, according to a study published online Nov. 7 in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Report of Recurrent Immune Thrombocytopenia After Flu Shot

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In a report published online Nov. 8 in Pediatrics, authors present the case of recurrent immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) after influenza vaccination.

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School-Required Tdap Vaccination Can Up HPV Immunization

TUESDAY, Nov. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Schools that require routine vaccines as a condition of attendance have higher rates of vaccination, including higher rates of immunization for the human papillomavirus (HPV), and children at these schools are also more likely to get recommended tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) and meningitis vaccines, according to research published online Nov. 8 in Pediatrics.

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Probable Interaction ID'd for PrOD, Ribavirin With Warfarin

TUESDAY, Nov. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- There is a probable interaction between paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir+dasabuvir (PrOD) plus ribavirin with warfarin, according to a case report published online Nov. 3 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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Guideline Adapted for Surgical Antimicrobial Prophylaxis

TUESDAY, Nov. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An adapted clinical practice guideline (CPG), published online Nov. 3 in the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, has been developed for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP), using two validated tools.

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Five Strategies Can Reduce Risk of Medical Lawsuits

MONDAY, Nov. 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Five strategies can be employed by physicians in order to help reduce the risk of lawsuits, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Recommendations Updated for Meningococcal Vaccine in HIV

MONDAY, Nov. 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In the Nov. 4 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, new recommendations are presented for meningococcal conjugate vaccination among HIV-infected individuals.

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Ocular Syphilis Cases May Be Increasing in United States

MONDAY, Nov. 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Ocular syphilis has been identified in jurisdictions in the United States, with reports of increases in five jurisdictions in 2014 and 2015, according to a review published the Nov. 4 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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CDC: 13 Cases of Candida auris Identified in the United States

FRIDAY, Nov. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Thirteen cases of Candida auris, a globally emerging invasive, multidrug-resistant fungus, have been identified in the United States, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Thalidomide May Cause Epidermal Necrolysis in Multiple Myeloma

FRIDAY, Nov. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with multiple myeloma, thalidomide may cause toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), according to a case report published online Nov. 2 in the International Journal of Dermatology.

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Review Identifies Features of Congenital Zika Infection

THURSDAY, Nov. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A distinctive phenotype of congenital Zika syndrome has been described in a review published online Nov. 3 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Half of Americans Have at Least One Chronic Health Condition

THURSDAY, Nov. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- More than half of Americans have at least one chronic disease, mental illness, or problem with drugs or alcohol, according to a study published online recently in Psychology, Health & Medicine.

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Maternal, Neonatal Adverse Events Up With Antenatal ART

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For HIV-infected pregnant women, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with significantly lower rates of early HIV transmission, but with a higher risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, according to a study published in the Nov. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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About 30 Percent Misdiagnosed With Lower Extremity Cellulitis

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- More than 30 percent of patients admitted with a diagnosis of lower extremity cellulitis are misdiagnosed, according to a study published online Nov. 2 in JAMA Dermatology.

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Tdap Vaccine During Pregnancy Seems Safe for Mother, Infant

TUESDAY, Nov. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccine does not appear to cause birth defects or any other major health problems for a developing fetus, according to a research letter published in the Nov. 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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