November 2015 Briefing - Pediatrics

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for November 2015. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

FDA Approves First Flu Vaccine Containing an Adjuvant

MONDAY, Nov. 30, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The first seasonal influenza vaccine with an adjuvant has been approved for use in seniors, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Bifidobacterium breve of Little Benefit to Very Preterm Infants

MONDAY, Nov. 30, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Probiotics don't appear to protect very preterm infants from serious complications, such as necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, or death, according to a new study published online Nov. 25 in The Lancet.

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AAP Provides Guidance on Pediatric Peri-Op Anesthesia

MONDAY, Nov. 30, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Guidance is offered for the pediatric perioperative anesthesia environment in a policy statement published online Nov. 30 in Pediatrics.

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Review: Changes in Vending Machines Can Promote Health

MONDAY, Nov. 30, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Pricing and availability strategies can improve nutritional quality of purchases from vending machines, according to a review published in the December issue of Obesity Reviews.

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AAFP Recommends Doctors Explore Use of Social Media

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The use of social media channels and associated benefits for physicians are highlighted in a recent article published by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). And guidelines are provided for physicians wishing to become active in social media.

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Low-Quality Evidence for Methylphenidate in ADHD

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Clinicians prescribing methylphenidate for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and teens must weigh the benefits and adverse effects in the context of low-quality evidence, according to the authors of a review published online Nov. 25 in The Cochrane Library.

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Melatonin May Improve Sleep in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Melatonin might improve sleep patterns for children with atopic dermatitis (AD), according to research published online Nov. 16 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Crib Bumpers Tied to Increasing Number of Infant Fatalities

TUESDAY, Nov. 24, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Infant deaths linked to crib bumpers have spiked in recent years in the United States, leading researchers to urge a ban on the padded bedding accessories. These findings appear online Nov. 24 in The Journal of Pediatrics.

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Music Can Help Doctors Develop Relationships With Patients

TUESDAY, Nov. 24 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For one physician, writing songs has improved her self-awareness and strengthened her relationships with patients, according to an article published by the American Medical Association.

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Exposure to Maternal Diabetes Impacts Youth Glycemic Control

TUESDAY, Nov. 24, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Young people exposed to maternal diabetes during pregnancy have poorer glycemic control and β-cell function, particularly non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, according to a study published online Nov. 17 in Diabetes Care.

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ACP: Physicians Should Prescribe Generic Meds If Possible

TUESDAY, Nov. 24, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians should prescribe generic medications whenever possible, keeping in mind that generics have comparable effectiveness to brand name medications and are associated with reduced costs and increased adherence, according to new guidelines published online Nov. 24 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Many First-Time Mothers Need More Accurate Vaccine Info

MONDAY, Nov. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Three-quarters of first-time expectant mothers plan to follow the recommended vaccination schedule for their children, according to survey results published recently in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Review Addresses Diagnosis of PCOS in Adolescents

MONDAY, Nov. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Unexplained persistent hyperandrogenic anovulation can be used to diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents, according to a review article published online Nov. 23 in Pediatrics.

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Drug Overdose Rates Up Substantially Among U.S. Youth

MONDAY, Nov. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Nationwide, the drug overdose mortality rate has more than doubled during the past decade among people aged 12 to 25 -- rising from 3.1 deaths per 100,000 in 1999-2001 to 7.3 deaths in 2011-2013, according to the Trust for America's Health's new Reducing Teen Substance Misuse: What Really Works report.

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HIV Prophylaxis to 12 Months Protects Breastfeeding Infants

FRIDAY, Nov. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Infants being breastfed by HIV-positive mothers can effectively be protected from the infection in the six- to 12-month period after birth by receiving up to 12 months of liquid formula HIV drugs, according to a report published online Nov. 18 in The Lancet.

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Genetic Risk Score Can Differentiate Type 1, 2 Diabetes

FRIDAY, Nov. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A genetic risk score (GRS) can distinguish type 1 diabetes (T1D) from type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a study published online Nov. 17 in Diabetes Care.

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New Drug Looks Promising for Respiratory Syncytial Virus

THURSDAY, Nov. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental drug shows promise as a treatment for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), according to a study published in the Nov. 19 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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E-Portfolio Developed to Assess Millennial Med Students

THURSDAY, Nov. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic portfolios are being used to transform medical students' assessments and track progress as students advance through medical training, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Factors ID'd That Predict Antibiotic Rx in Pediatric URI

THURSDAY, Nov. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Factors that relate to appropriate management of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) in children include clinician specialty and patient race/ethnicity and age, according to a study published in the November/December issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Germline Mutations ID'd in 8.5 Percent of Children With Cancer

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Germline mutations are found in cancer-predisposing genes in 8.5 percent of children and adolescents with cancer, according to a study published online Nov. 18 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Burnout Reduces Readiness to Change Teaching Approaches

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Occupational burnout appears to reduce clinical faculty members' readiness to change teaching approaches, according to a study published online Nov. 13 in the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.

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AAFP: Expected 0.5 Percent Pay Increase Reduced to Zero

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A small but promised Medicare pay increase has effectively been reduced to zero for all physician specialties, according to the final 2016 Medicare physician fee schedule and a report published by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

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Head Lice infestation Could Cause Iron Deficiency Anemia

TUESDAY, Nov. 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Head lice infestation could cause iron deficiency anemia in the absence of any other cause, according to a case report published online Nov. 5 in BMJ Case Reports.

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HbA1c Control on Metformin Predicts Durable Control in T2DM

MONDAY, Nov. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For adolescents with type 2 diabetes, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) after metformin monotherapy predicts the likelihood of durable glycemic control on oral therapy, according to a study published online Nov. 4 in Diabetes Care.

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Successful Treatment of U.S. Child With XDR Tuberculosis

MONDAY, Nov. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A 5-year-old child from the United States, diagnosed at age 2 with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis after traveling to India, is finally in remission, researchers report. A detailed account of the child's diagnosis and treatment, and the obstacles that clinicians at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center in Baltimore faced, was published in the December issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Breastfeeding Tied to Lower Risk of Retinopathy of Prematurity

MONDAY, Nov. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Breastfeeding a premature infant may help reduce the risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), according to research published online Nov. 16 in Pediatrics.

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Increased Dwell Time Doesn't Raise Infection Risk for PICCs

MONDAY, Nov. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Infants with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) do not have increased risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) with increased dwell time, according to a study published online Nov. 16 in Pediatrics.

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CDC: Autism Rate Up Post Survey Method Changes

FRIDAY, Nov. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- About one in 45 children have an autism spectrum disorder, according to a new U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention survey of parents. This apparent increase is likely due to a change of questions parents were asked about their child, the study authors said. The findings were published Nov. 13 in the CDC's National Health Statistics Reports.

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CDC: Sharp Increase in U.S. Babies Born With Syphilis

FRIDAY, Nov. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Congenital syphilis cases increased 38 percent between 2012 and 2014, according to research published in the Nov. 13 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Case of Bobby Pin Piercing Kidney Reported in 4-Year-Old

FRIDAY, Nov. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A swallowed bobby pin can be cause for concern, capable of piercing through the kidney, according to a case report published online Nov. 5 in BMJ Case Reports.

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CDC: Adult Obesity Still Rising in U.S., Youth Rates Hold Steady

THURSDAY, Nov. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Although obesity rates continued to climb among U.S. adults over the past decade, they stabilized for children and teens, according to a November data brief published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics.

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Newborn Probiotic Use Tied to Lower Risk of Type 1 Diabetes

THURSDAY, Nov. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Adding probiotics to an infant's feedings in the first month of life may reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes for those genetically predisposed to the disease, according to research published online Nov. 9 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Prenatal PFOA Exposure Linked to Excess Weight in Children

THURSDAY, Nov. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Children whose mothers were exposed to relatively high levels of perfluorooctanoic (PFOA) during pregnancy have more rapid accumulation of body fat, according to findings published online Nov. 11 in Obesity.

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Substantial Increase in Costs for Uncontrolled Asthma

THURSDAY, Nov. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A considerable proportion of patients with mild to moderate asthma are symptomatically uncontrolled, and uncontrolled asthma is associated with significantly increased costs, according to a study published online Nov. 3 in Allergy.

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ACP Issues Guidance on 'Concierge' Practices

TUESDAY, Nov. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Direct patient contracting practices (DPCPs), in which patients pay out of pocket for some or all services provided by the practice, are growing in popularity, according to a position paper published online Nov. 10 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Blood Test Has Potential for Detecting Concussion in Children

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A simple blood test may one day be able to detect concussions in children, according to a study published in the November issue of Academic Emergency Medicine.

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Insulin Pumps Offer Better HbA1c Control for Children With T1DM

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Insulin pumps help improve hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels in children and teens with type 1 diabetes and should be made more widely available, researchers report. The study was published online Nov. 7 in Diabetologia.

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Expanding Rooming, Discharge Office Protocols Can Save Time

MONDAY, Nov. 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Expanding protocols for rooming and discharge can allow physicians to free up an hour or more of time per day, according to the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Web-Based CBT Program Cuts Suicidal Ideation in Interns

MONDAY, Nov. 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (wCBT) program is effective for preventing suicidal ideation among medical interns, according to a study published online Nov. 4 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Scarlet Fever Incidence Rising in Some Parts of the World

FRIDAY, Nov. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Genome sequencing techniques can shed light on the rise in incidence of scarlet fever-causing bacteria and their increasing resistance to antibiotics, according to research published online Nov. 2 in Scientific Reports.

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Updated Checklist for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

FRIDAY, Nov. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- An updated list of 30 essential items should be included in every report of a diagnostic accuracy study, according to the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (STARD) 2015. These new guidelines have been published in several journals, including Radiology, Clinical Chemistry, and The BMJ.

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FDA Approves Genvoya to Treat HIV-1 Infection

THURSDAY, Nov. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A new treatment for HIV has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Genvoya -- a tablet containing elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide -- can be used to treat HIV-1 infection in adults and children 12 and older weighing at least 77 pounds.

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Doctors Who Order More Tests Have Fewer Malpractice Claims

THURSDAY, Nov. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) --The more tests and treatments U.S. doctors order for patients, the less likely they are to be sued for malpractice, according to a study published online Nov. 4 in The BMJ.

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Poll: Americans Want Health Care Costs Kept in Check

THURSDAY, Nov. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Most Americans now support aggressive regulation to keep health care costs in check -- including price caps on drugs, medical devices, and payments to doctors and hospitals, a new HealthDay/Harris Poll has found.

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ACP Joins Amicus Curiae Brief to Supreme Court

THURSDAY, Nov. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The American College of Physicians (ACP) has joined other organizations in an amicus curiae brief to the Supreme Court, urging the court to uphold considerations of race and ethnicity in the medical school admissions process.

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Progress Made in Early Trial of RSV Vaccine

THURSDAY, Nov. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Another research team is reporting progress toward developing a vaccine to prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Their findings were published in the Nov. 4 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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AMA: 6 Steps to Help Ensure Patients Get Preventive Care

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Panel management, or population health management, can help physicians provide necessary preventive and chronic care to all patients regardless of their visit frequency, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Doctors Should Consider Financial Factors Before Career Change

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Financial and other factors should be considered before physicians change career direction, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Guidelines Issued for Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The first guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in children have been published online Nov. 3 in Circulation.

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Pertussis in Childhood Tied to Small Increase in Epilepsy Risk

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Pertussis may be tied to a slightly increased risk of development of epilepsy in children, according to a study published in the Nov. 3 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Prescription Medication Use on the Rise in the United States

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- More Americans than ever are taking prescription drugs, as well as using more of them, according to research published in the Nov. 3 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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HIV-Infected Children Can Transition to Efavirenz-Based Tx

TUESDAY, Nov. 3, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For nevirapine-exposed children with HIV achieving initial viral suppression with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir-based therapy, transition to efavirenz-based therapy is not inferior to continuing ritonavir-boosted lopinavir-based therapy, according to a study published in the Nov. 3 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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New Electronic Health Record Regulations Released

TUESDAY, Nov. 3, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New electronic health record (EHR) regulations modify Stage 2 of the meaningful use program and finalize requirements for Stage 3, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Severe Obesity in Adults Costs Medicaid $8 Billion Annually

TUESDAY, Nov. 3, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Severe obesity is putting a huge financial strain on both the U.S. Medicaid system and severely obese patients themselves, according to a report published in the November issue of Health Affairs.

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One in Five Pediatricians Drop Families Who Refuse Vaccines

MONDAY, Nov. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- About 20 percent of U.S. pediatricians regularly drop families who refuse to have their children vaccinated, according to a report published online Nov. 2 in Pediatrics.

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Prescribing Drugs 'Off-Label' Can Pose Serious Safety Risks

MONDAY, Nov. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Off-label drug use puts patients at risk for serious side effects, especially when scientific evidence is lacking, according to a study published online Nov. 2 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Competition for Fellowships Broke Records in 2015

MONDAY, Nov. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- According to the American Medical Association (AMA), 2015 was a record-breaking year for fellowship applications.

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Aripiprazole Can Cause False-Positive Amphetamine Screens

MONDAY, Nov. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Urine drug screens (UDSs) can be false-positive for amphetamines after ingestion of aripiprazole, according to two case reports published online Nov. 2 in Pediatrics.

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Displaying Prices to Providers Seems to Reduce Order Costs

MONDAY, Nov. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Displaying order prices to physicians seems to reduce order costs, according to a review published online Oct. 23 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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