May 2016 Briefing - Infectious Disease

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for May 2016. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

WHO Changes Advisory Regarding Sexual Transmission of Zika

TUESDAY, May 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women planning to become pregnant should wait at least eight weeks before trying to conceive if they or their partner live in -- or are returning from -- areas where Zika virus infections are occurring, U.N. health officials now recommend.

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Achieving U.N. Target Cost-Effective for HIV in South Africa

TUESDAY, May 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Achieving the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 target strategy would be effective and cost-effective in South Africa, according to a study published online May 30 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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AHRQ Communication Toolkit Can Help After Patient Harm Occurs

TUESDAY, May 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new communication toolkit created by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) can help health care organizations and providers communicate with patients and families when harm occurs to patients.

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Cephalexin Failure Rate Similar for Morbidly Obese, Non-Obese

TUESDAY, May 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients receiving cephalexin monotherapy for non-purulent cellulitis, the rate of therapeutic failure does not differ for morbidly obese and non-obese, according to a study published online May 19 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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U.S. Has First Documented Case of Superbug Resistant to Colistin

FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The first case of a patient infected with a superbug resistant to a last-resort antibiotic has been documented in the United States. The report was published online May 26 in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

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Zika Infects, Replicates in Immune Cells From Placenta

FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- New research, published online May 27 in Cell Host & Microbe, sheds light on how the Zika virus infects, but doesn't kill, placenta cells.

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Showering Just Days After TKA Does Not Up Infection Risk

FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients are usually instructed to wait two weeks after surgery to take a shower to reduce the risk of infection; however, this may not be necessary, according to a study published recently in the Journal of Arthroplasty.

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Remaining Uninsured May Be Difficult to Reach Via ACA

FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Uninsurance rates have decreased since the introduction of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), but reaching the remaining uninsured may prove challenging, according to a health policy brief published online May 23 in Health Affairs.

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ISG15 Deficiency Linked to Antiviral Immunity in Humans

FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Investigators describe a strategy for development of a broad-spectrum anti-viral agent. Their research was published online May 19 in Nature Communications.

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Recognition of Patient Expertise Can Improve Adherence

FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Recognizing the unique role of patients and their expertise within the physician-patient interaction can help to prevent non-adherence based on disagreement, according to an article published online May 18 in the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.

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How Much of a Threat Will Zika Be to the United States?

THURSDAY, May 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Some leading insect and infectious-disease experts think health officials in the United States are overreacting to the threat posed by the Zika virus this summer.

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New Ocular Findings in Infants With Zika-Related Microcephaly

WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- New ocular complications in infants born with Zika-related microcephaly have been identified by researchers. The latest vision findings, published online May 25 in Ophthalmology, add to a growing body of evidence about how Zika may affect children's eye development and vision.

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CDC: New Method of Identifying Pregnant Women With Zika Virus

FRIDAY, May 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The number of pregnant women in the United States infected with the Zika virus has just tripled because cases are now being counted in a more comprehensive way, federal health officials said Friday.

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CDC: Many Aquatic Facilities Closed Due to Safety Violations

FRIDAY, May 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Serious health and safety violations force the closure of thousands of public pools, hot tubs, and water playgrounds every year, according to research published in the May 20 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Strategies Can Help Streamline Revenue-Related Processes

THURSDAY, May 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Strategies can be employed to maximize the amount of time available for patient care by streamlining revenue-related processes, according to the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Few Signs, Symptoms During Acute HIV-1 Infection

WEDNESDAY, May 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Few symptoms and signs are observed during acute HIV-1 infection, and these are most common before peak viremia, according to a study published online May 18 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Burnout, Lack of Job Satisfaction Driving Doctors to Cut Hours

WEDNESDAY, May 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Full-time physicians reporting worsening burnout or decreased job satisfaction are more likely to reduce their work hours, according to a study published in the April issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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Sexual Harassment Experienced by One-Third of Female Doctors

WEDNESDAY, May 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Thirty percent of female physicians face sexual harassment on the job, while close to three-quarters perceive gender bias at work and two-thirds say they have actually experienced it, according to survey findings published in the May 17 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Complementary Medicine Use Up With Chronic Conditions

MONDAY, May 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Adults with multiple chronic conditions frequently use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), according to a study published online May 5 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Preventing Chronic Disease.

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FDA Issues Stronger Warning on Side Effects of Fluoroquinolones

FRIDAY, May 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stronger warnings about the possible side effects of fluoroquinolones were issued Thursday by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Bundle of Practices Can Cut Surgical Site Infections

FRIDAY, May 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Implementing a bundle of evidence-based practices can reduce 30-day surgical site infection, according to a study published in the June issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Infection Control Measures Established for Ebola Care

THURSDAY, May 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Infection control measures have been developed to strengthen hospitals' capacity for safely diagnosing and treating patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD), according to a review published online May 10 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Zika May Present With Mucocutaneous Features

THURSDAY, May 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In one recent case of Zika virus infection, a diffuse papular descending eruption, petechiae on the palate, and hyperemic sclerae were key symptoms of infection with the mosquito-borne virus, according to a case report published online May 11 in JAMA Dermatology.

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CDC Updates Zika Testing Guidance for Urine Samples

TUESDAY, May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The interim diagnostic testing guidance for Zika virus in public health laboratories has been updated, according to a report published in the May 10 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Survival for HCV Cirrhosis, SVR Same As General Population

TUESDAY, May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with compensated hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis, those who achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) on an interferon-based (IFN) regimen have survival comparable to that of the general population, according to research published online April 5 in the Journal of Hepatology.

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Cutting Brand-Name Drug Use Could Save U.S. $73 Billion

TUESDAY, May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Americans could save tens of billions of dollars with more efficient drug use, replacing brand-name drugs with their generic equivalents whenever possible, according to a study published online May 9 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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CDC Establishes New 'Clean Hands Count' Campaign

MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has introduced a new campaign, "Clean Hands Count," to encourage health care professionals, patients, and patients' families to keep their hands clean in order to prevent health care-associated infections.

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Microbiome Linked to Infectious Complications in AML

MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) undergoing induction chemotherapy (IC), gastrointestinal microbiome composition is associated with infectious complications, according to a study published online May 3 in Cancer.

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HIV Rates on Decline, but Still Short of U.S. Five-Year Goal

FRIDAY, May 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Although HIV infection and transmission rates in the United States declined over the past five years, they fell short of White House targets, according to findings published online April 29 in AIDS and Behavior.

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Portable, Rapid, Low-Cost Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

FRIDAY, May 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors working far from hospitals, according to a study published online May 6 in Cell.

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New Evidence of Link Between Zika and Guillain-Barré

FRIDAY, May 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- There is new evidence that Zika may cause Guillain-Barré syndrome, according to findings presented at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Epidemic Intelligence Service Conference, held from May 2 to 5 in Atlanta.

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CDC: Hepatitis C Leads Infectious Disease Mortality in U.S.

THURSDAY, May 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The number of hepatitis C-linked deaths in the United States reached a record high in 2014, and the disease is now the leading cause of infectious disease mortality in the United States, according to a report published in the May 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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Bacterium Blocks Zika Virus Isolates in Aedes Mosquitoes

WEDNESDAY, May 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Experiments in mosquitoes suggest that bacteria may help curb the spread of the Zika virus, according to research published online May 4 in Cell Host & Microbe.

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Physician Leadership Training May Help Counteract Burnout

WEDNESDAY, May 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Physician leaders with good leadership qualities are more likely to have employees who are satisfied and do not show signs of burnout, according to a study published in the April issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings and a report published by the American Medical Association.

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Herpes Simplex Virus Linked to Frailty, Mortality

WEDNESDAY, May 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For older women, herpes simplex virus antibody levels are associated with incident frailty and mortality, according to a study published online April 30 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Price Transparency Tool Doesn't Cut Health Care Spending

WEDNESDAY, May 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Employee use of a price transparency tool does not cut health care spending, according to a study published in the May 3 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Still Too Many Antibiotic Prescriptions Being Written

TUESDAY, May 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly one-third of the antibiotics prescribed in the United States aren't appropriate for the conditions being treated, according to research published in the May 3 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Infant Viral Infections Might Raise Risk of Type 1 Diabetes

TUESDAY, May 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Respiratory and viral infections in the first six months of life may increase the odds of a child developing type 1 diabetes by nearly 20 percent, according to a study published in the May 3 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Adding Antiviral to Sorafenib Is Cost-Effective in HCC

TUESDAY, May 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The addition of antiviral therapy to sorafenib is a cost-effective option compared with sorafenib monotherapy in patients with advanced hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China, according to a study published online April 27 in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Report: Why Health Care Costs Are Lower in Europe Than U.S.

TUESDAY, May 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- European residents have access to the same health care services as U.S. residents but pay much less, and this is related to several specific factors, according to a report published by INDIGOMED on April 25.

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2017 May Offer Fewer Choices for Affordable Care Act Enrollees

MONDAY, May 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With the nation's largest health insurer exiting all but a few Affordable Care Act exchanges next year, some Americans may be left with fewer choices and some might see higher monthly premiums.

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