March 2016 Briefing - Pediatrics

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for March 2016. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Pediatricians Struggle to Find Work-Life Balance Early in Career

THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Early-career pediatricians commonly struggle with work-life balance, according to a study published online March 28 in Pediatrics.

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Entry Receptor for Zika Virus Identified in Brain, Retina

WEDNESDAY, March 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The candidate viral entry receptor for Zika virus, AXL, is highly expressed by cells in the developing human cortex and retina, according to an experimental study published online March 30 in Cell Stem Cell.

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Higher Weight in First Year May Up Risk of Islet Autoimmunity

WEDNESDAY, March 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Development of islet autoimmunity and multiple islet autoantibodies appears to be related to weight z-scores at age 12 months, according to a study published online March 23 in Diabetes.

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AAP Calls for More Funds for Graduate Education in Pediatrics

WEDNESDAY, March 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- More graduate medical education (GME) should be financed to meet the needs of children and the pediatric workforce, according to a policy statement published online March 28 in Pediatrics.

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AMA Addresses Elements of Team-Based Care Model

TUESDAY, March 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The elements of a team-based care model are described in a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Pediatricians Should Be Familiar With Zika Virus Infection

TUESDAY, March 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians should be familiar with Zika virus infection, which can affect all age groups, including children, according to a study published online March 28 in Pediatrics.

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Blood Pressure Targets Relevant for Children, Teens

TUESDAY, March 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Prehypertension and hypertension in children and adolescents are associated with cardiovascular target organ damage and set the trajectory for early adulthood high blood pressure (BP), according to an editorial published online March 28 in Hypertension.

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How Can We Fix the Wage Gap Among Female Physicians?

MONDAY, March 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women doctors can address the gender wage disparity by understanding the reasons why they earn less, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Prevalence of Acute Otitis Media 46 Percent by Age 12 Months

MONDAY, March 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of acute otitis media (AOM) is 46 percent by age 12 months, according to a study published online March 28 in Pediatrics.

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Teens With Autism More Likely to Develop Type 2 Diabetes

MONDAY, March 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), according to a study published online March 22 in Diabetes Care.

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Protocolized Handover Process Sustainable for Reducing Errors

THURSDAY, March 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A protocolized handover process correlates with a sustained reduction in the number of errors for children being transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac surgery, according to a study published online March 21 in Pediatric Anesthesia.

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Maternal Obesity Tied to Increase in Child Behavior Problems

THURSDAY, March 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal obesity is associated with a small increase in child behavior problems, according to a study published online March 21 in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

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Guidelines Developed for Preschoolers With Cystic Fibrosis

WEDNESDAY, March 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Guidelines have been developed for the care of 2- to 5-year-old children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The clinical practice guidelines were published online March 23 in Pediatrics.

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Most Pediatricians Satisfied With Professional Responsibilities

WEDNESDAY, March 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Overall, most pediatricians report that their allocation of professional time is in accordance with what they want, according to a study published online March 22 in Pediatrics.

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AMA Encouraging Physicians to ID, Assist Victims of Trafficking

TUESDAY, March 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians can help to identify and assist trafficking victims, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Wrestling Wins for Most High School Athletic Skin Infections

TUESDAY, March 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Among U.S. high school athletes, the rate of skin infections is 2.27 per 100,000 athlete exposures, with the majority occurring in wrestlers, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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FDA: Most Powdered Medical Gloves Should Be Banned in U.S.

MONDAY, March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration wants to ban most powdered medical gloves, saying they pose serious health risks to patients and health care providers alike.

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Intra-Arterial Chemo Promising for Intraocular Retinoblastoma

MONDAY, March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Intra-arterial chemotherapy appears to be promising for intraocular retinoblastoma, according to a review published online March 17 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Bevacizumab Use in Preemies Associated With Disabilities

FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Bevacizumab (Avastin) used to treat retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may be linked to serious disabilities such as cerebral palsy and hearing loss, according to a study published online March 17 in Pediatrics.

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Case Before Supreme Court May Expose Doctors to Large Fines

FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A case before a state supreme court could potentially expose physicians to large fines based on a legal technicality relating to what they should have known, rather than what they knew, according to the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Propranolol for Hemangiomas Doesn't Impair Infant Growth

FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For infantile hemangiomas, systemic propranolol appears safe and does not impair physical growth, according to a study published online March 6 in the Journal of Dermatology.

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Case Report: Immobility-Induced Hypercalcemia in Infant

FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A rare case of immobility-induced hypercalcemia in an infant has been documented in a case report published online March 18 in Pediatrics.

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Spending on Prescription Meds Up About 5 Percent in 2015

THURSDAY, March 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Spending on prescription medications for insured Americans increased about 5 percent in 2015, with the increase half of that seen in 2014, the Associated Press reported.

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Antibiotic Resistance in Pediatric UTIs Up Globally

WEDNESDAY, March 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many children who develop urinary tract infections (UTIs) tied to the Escherichia coli bacteria are now failing to respond to antibiotic treatment, according to research published online March 15 in The BMJ.

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Disruptive Patients Distract Docs, May Receive Compromised Care

WEDNESDAY, March 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Disruptive patients may get worse care from physicians, according to a study published online March 7 in BMJ Quality & Safety. The findings aren't definitive because the researchers tested how physicians responded in fictional vignettes, instead of real-life encounters. Still, the results suggest that such patients distract physicians from doing their jobs.

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Antenatal Corticosteroids Cut Mortality for Early Preemies

WEDNESDAY, March 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For neonates born before 24 weeks of gestation, receipt of antenatal corticosteroids and active intensive treatment is associated with reduced odds of mortality to discharge, according to a review published in the April issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Mayo Clinic Has Established Model to Help Battle Burnout

TUESDAY, March 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In an effort to reduce burnout among physicians, the Mayo Clinic is initiating a model to raise camaraderie and increase collaboration, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Off-Label Use of Metformin Common in U.S. Adolescents

TUESDAY, March 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In U.S. adolescents, off-label use of metformin is common, according to a study published online March 9 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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Girls Using IUDs Rather Than OCPs Less Likely to Use Condoms

TUESDAY, March 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- High school girls who use long-acting contraception -- such as intrauterine devices or implants -- are less likely to focus on condom use than girls who are taking oral contraceptives, according to a study published online March 14 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Familial Hypercholesterolemia More Common Than Thought

TUESDAY, March 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Familial hypercholesterolemia affects about one in every 250 American men and women and significantly increases their risk for an early heart attack, according to a study published in the March 15 issue of Circulation.

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Two-Dose Varicella Vaccine Offers Improved Protection

MONDAY, March 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Giving one dose of the varicella vaccine at age 1 and a second dose at ages 4 to 6 is nearly 100 percent effective in preventing varicella, according to a study published online March 14 in Pediatrics.

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Guidance Offered for Negotiating Higher Rates From Payers

MONDAY, March 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Negotiations to increase payment from insurance companies can be extremely difficult, although it is possible to get a payment increase, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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HIIT May Be Most Effective Exercise Method for Obese Youth

MONDAY, March 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For obese youth, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be more effective for improving blood pressure and aerobic capacity than other forms of exercise, according to a meta-analysis published online March 7 in Obesity Reviews.

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E-Consultations Can Improve Access to, Timeliness of Care

MONDAY, March 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic consultation (e-consultation), an asynchronous, non-face-to-face consultation between a primary care physician and a specialist, can improve access to care and reduce wait times, according to a study published in the March/April issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Early-Term Delivery May Not Up Adverse Neonatal Outcomes

MONDAY, March 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Elective early-term deliveries may not be associated with increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes, according to a study published in the April issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Doctor Communication Supports Parents' Beliefs About Antibiotics

MONDAY, March 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Clinician communication and prescribing behavior reinforce parents' understanding of antibiotic treatment, according to a study published in the March/April issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Apnea Impacts Neurocognitive Function in Children

FRIDAY, March 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has a deleterious impact in children, affecting neurocognitive functioning, according to a study published online March 1 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Rebound Growth for One in Four With Infantile Hemangioma

FRIDAY, March 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- About 25 percent of patients with infantile hemangioma (IH) have rebound growth, according to a study published online March 7 in Pediatrics.

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Five Strategies Employed to Help Promote Behavior Change

FRIDAY, March 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Five key strategies are employed by clinicians to help promote patient behavior change, according to a study published in the March/April issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Hydrolyzed Infant Formulas Don't Shield Against Asthma, Allergies

THURSDAY, March 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Evidence is lacking that hydrolyzed infant formulas protect children from autoimmune disorders, according to a review published online March 8 in The BMJ.

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Treating Infant Cataracts With Endogenous Stem Cells Feasible

THURSDAY, March 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new surgical technique for removing cataracts might allow the eye's stem cells to regenerate a healthy lens, according to preliminary findings reported online March 9 in Nature.

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AAP: Add Poverty to Well-Visit Checklist

WEDNESDAY, March 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Poverty can significantly harm a child's health and should be an issue identified at well-child visits, according to a new American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement. The statement and an accompanying report were published online March 9 in Pediatrics.

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Physicians' Contracts Can Affect Patients, Professionalism

WEDNESDAY, March 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Problematic clauses in physicians' contracts can impact patient care and professionalism, according to an Ideas and Opinions piece published online March 8 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Parents Often Report Medical Errors in Peds Inpatient Care

WEDNESDAY, March 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Parents frequently report medical errors in pediatric inpatient care, according to a study published online Feb. 29 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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District Policy With Support Ups Drink Quality in Schools

TUESDAY, March 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A policy introducing nutrition standards for competitive beverages can improve the nutritional quality of beverages sold in schools, according to a study published online March 3 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Preventing Chronic Disease.

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Opportunities for Healthy Diet, Exercise Influence Behaviors

TUESDAY, March 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Practical opportunities for healthy diet and activity are associated with intentions, achieved behaviors, and body mass index (BMI), according to a study published in the March/April issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Review IDs Care Gaps for Teens With Chronic Conditions

TUESDAY, March 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Patient-related determinants of care gaps have been identified in adolescents with chronic conditions; the findings were published online March 3 in Pediatrics.

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Chemical Exposure Down With Switch in Cosmetics Among Teens

MONDAY, March 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Switching to chemical-free cosmetics and shampoos quickly lowers levels of hormone-disrupting chemicals in the bodies of adolescent girls, according to a study published online March 7 in Environmental Health Perspectives.

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Chorioamnionitis Not Linked to Lower Bayley II Scores at Age 2

MONDAY, March 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Chorioamnionitis does not appear to be associated with decreased Bayley II scores at age 2 years, according to a study published in the March issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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U.S. Bans E-Cigarettes on Commercial Flights

THURSDAY, March 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic cigarettes have been banned from commercial flights, the U.S. Department of Transportation announced Wednesday.

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Decrease in Pediatric S. aureus Infections Due to MRSA

THURSDAY, March 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The proportion of pediatric Staphylococcus aureus infections due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus seems to be decreasing in pediatric populations, according to a study published online March 1 in Pediatrics.

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SCOTUS: States Can't Force Health Care Data Release

WEDNESDAY, March 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Supreme Court has ruled against state efforts to collect health care data from insurance plans.

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Iron Supplement in Infancy May Benefit Motor Development

WEDNESDAY, March 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Iron supplementation in infancy, regardless of iron supplementation in pregnancy, improves gross motor development at age 9 months, according to research published online March 2 in Pediatrics.

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Spouse Education Level May Impact Choice for Rural Practice

WEDNESDAY, March 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians who are married to a highly-educated spouse are less likely to work in rural underserved areas, according to a study published in the March 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Social-Emotional Difficulty Linked to Toddler Mobile Tech Use

WEDNESDAY, March 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- There is a correlation between increased social-emotional difficulties in toddlers and the tendency of low-income parents to use mobile technology to calm their children in certain situations, according to a research letter published online Feb. 29 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Severe Anemia Ups Necrotizing Enterocolitis Risk in VLBW

TUESDAY, March 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Severe anemia, but not red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, is associated with increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants, according to research published in the March 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Zika Infection Linked to Guillain-Barré Syndrome

TUESDAY, March 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Zika virus infection may be associated with incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome, according to a study published online Feb. 29 in The Lancet.

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Similar Sensitivity for CBCL-AP, CRS-R in Diagnosing ADHD

TUESDAY, March 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Child Behavior Checklist-Attention Problem (CBCL-AP) scale and Conners Rating Scale-Revised (CRS-R) yield moderate sensitivity for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, according to research published online Feb. 29 in Pediatrics.

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Pre-Op Stress Tied to Post-Op Pain, Anxiety in Scoliosis Patients

TUESDAY, March 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Attention to preoperative stress in adolescents undergoing scoliosis surgery may reduce levels of postoperative pain as well as anxiety and social and attention problems in the recovery period, according to a study published online Feb. 22 in the Journal of Clinical Nursing.

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Uric Acid Levels Low in Teens With Type 1 Diabetes

TUESDAY, March 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Plasma uric acid (PUA) levels are significantly lower in adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) than in healthy control subjects, and there does not appear to be a link between PUA levels and cardiorenal abnormalities in these patients, according to a study published online Feb. 19 in Diabetes Care.

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