June 2016 Briefing - Infectious Disease

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for June 2016. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children

THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The world's most promising malaria vaccine (RTS,S/AS01) appears to offer only short-lived protection, and may increase children's long-term risk of contracting malaria if they live in a region with heavy transmission of the parasite, according to a study published in the June 30 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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FDA Approves New Test to Help Detect Drug-Resistant Bacteria

THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Xpert Carba-R Assay diagnostic, which tests patient specimens for genetic markers associated with drug-resistant bacteria, has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Zika Virus Congenital Syndrome: A New Teratogenic Disease

THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Zika virus congenital syndrome is a new teratogenic disease, with many definite or probable cases presenting with normal head circumference values, according to research published online June 29 in The Lancet.

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Florida Reports First Case of Zika-Linked Microcephaly

WEDNESDAY, June 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Florida's first case of a Zika-related birth defect has been reported by state officials.

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Electronic Record Demands Are Overwhelming Many Physicians

WEDNESDAY, June 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians using electronic practice tools report higher rates of burnout and increased frustration with the amount of computerized paperwork, according to research published online June 27 in the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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Pregnancy May Lengthen Life of Zika Virus Infection

WEDNESDAY, June 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Infection with the Zika virus may protect against future infection, but pregnancy seems to extend how long the virus stays in the body, according to findings published online June 28 in Nature Communications.

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FDA Approves Epclusa for Chronic Hepatitis C

TUESDAY, June 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The combination drug Epclusa has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat the six major strains of chronic hepatitis C virus.

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Two Vaccines Deemed Feasible Against Zika Virus Infection

TUESDAY, June 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Experimental studies support the effectiveness of two vaccine candidates against the Zika virus, according to research published online June 28 in Nature.

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Few Young Males Receive HIV Testing at Physician Office Visits

TUESDAY, June 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Few young males receive HIV testing during visits to physicians' offices, although the rates are higher for black and Hispanic males than for white males, according to a report published in the June 24 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Patients Face High Hospital Bills Despite Having Insurance

MONDAY, June 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Costs of hospitalization for privately insured adults rose more than 37 percent over five years, with patients paying more than $1,000 on average by 2013, according to research published online June 27 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltrate Seen in Syphilis, HIV Co-Infection

MONDAY, June 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Skin biopsies from patients co-infected with HIV and syphilis have moderate to extensive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, according to research published online June 14 in the Journal of Cutaneous Pathology.

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Catheter Reduction Programs Do Reduce Use of Catheters

MONDAY, June 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Catheter reduction programs are associated with a reduction in the number of catheter days per 100 patient-days, according to a research letter published online June 17 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Drones Could Work for Efficient Delivery of Aid to Remote Areas

MONDAY, June 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Drones might offer a cheaper and better way to deliver vaccines to people in developing countries, according to a study published online June 20 in Vaccine.

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DNA Tests May Aid Diagnosis of CNS Infections

FRIDAY, June 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Genetic testing may help diagnose or rule out central nervous system (CNS) infections, according to research published online June 13 in Neurology: Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation.

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2017 Will Bring Premium Rate Increases Under ACA

FRIDAY, June 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Health insurance premiums under the Affordable Care Act will rise in 2017, analysts and insurance brokers say.

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K13 Polymorphism Analysis Can ID Resistance Mutations

THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Plasmodium falciparum gene Kelch (K13)-propeller sequence polymorphism analysis can assist with surveillance of artemisinin resistance, according to a study published in the June 23 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Exposure to the Dengue Virus May Up Potency of Zika Infection

THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Prior exposure to the dengue fever virus may increase the severity of Zika virus infection, according to a study published online June 23 in Nature Immunology.

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CDC: FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Should Not Be Used 2016-2017

THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The nasal spray form of the influenza vaccine should not be used next flu season, according to an announcement late Wednesday by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Panel on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

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Adverse Outcomes Up With Kidney Retransplant in HIV+

THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Primary HIV+ kidney transplant recipients who lose their graft and seek retransplantation (re-KT) have an increased risk of death and graft loss, according to a study published online June 15 in the American Journal of Transplantation.

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Early Antibiotic Treatment Can Be Beneficial in Cystic Fibrosis

THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), early treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) may be beneficial, according to a study published online June 16 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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Failure of Dual Antimicrobial Therapy for Gonorrhea Reported

THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In a case report published in the June 23 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, dual antimicrobial therapy failure is described in the treatment of gonorrhea.

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Zika Infection Also Linked to Uveitis in Adults

THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In a letter published online June 22 in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers describe the case of a man who was infected with Zika and developed uveitis.

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Hep C Core Antigen Assays Show High Sensitivity, Specificity

THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Testing for hepatitis C virus core antigen (HCVcAg) could be a good alternative for nucleic acid testing (NAT) for diagnosis of chronic HCV, according to a review and meta-analysis published online June 21 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Statins Could Reduce Risk of Infection in Stroke Patients

WEDNESDAY, June 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Statins could significantly reduce the risk of infection in stroke patients, according to a study published online June 9 in the Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases.

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APCs, Doctors Order Low-Value Services With Similar Frequency

WEDNESDAY, June 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Advanced practice clinicians (APCs) and physicians order low-value health services with similar frequency, according to a study published online June 20 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Tips Provided for Leveraging Social Media

TUESDAY, June 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- During a presentation at the 2016 American Medical Association Annual Meeting, Kevin Pho, M.D., founder and editor of the popular physician blog KevinMD, shared insights into making a difference in health care through use of social media.

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Reset Room Can Help Address Physician Burnout

MONDAY, June 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The creation of a reset room is one of several solutions that can help physicians and medical providers address burnout, according to a report published by the American Medical Association.

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Scientists Pinpoint Potential Drug Target for Zika Virus

MONDAY, June 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A potential way to prevent Zika and similar viruses from spreading in the body has been identified, according to research published online June 17 in Nature.

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Most Women Diagnosed With HIV in Pregnancy Retained in Care

MONDAY, June 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Most women diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy are still retained in clinical care over the first year postpartum, according to a study published in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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CDC: New Test May Help Screen Blood Donations for Zika

FRIDAY, June 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus is spreading through Puerto Rico, placing hundreds of pregnant women at risk for delivering babies with microcephaly, and blood centers in Puerto Rico have begun testing donations for Zika, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Friday.

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Strategy Needed to Address Impending Physician Shortage

FRIDAY, June 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Steps should be taken to combat the impending physician shortage of between 61,700 and 94,700 doctors that the United States is expected to face over the next decade, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Vancomycin Trough Target May Be Lower for Teens

FRIDAY, June 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The target trough concentration of vancomycin seems to be lower for adolescents than for adults, according to a study published online June 13 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

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Zika Infection in Third Trimester May Not Harm Development

THURSDAY, June 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The danger of Zika-related birth defects may be confined to maternal infections that occur during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, according to a study led by Margaret Honein, Ph.D., of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and published online June 15 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Experimental Antibiotic Shows Promise in Fight Against MRSA

THURSDAY, June 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental antibiotic has shown promise against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals, according to a study published in the July issue of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

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Potential Impact of Single-Payer Health Care Discussed

THURSDAY, June 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders is promoting his version of single-payer health care, although the actual impact of such a system is unclear, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Prices for Care Rise Significantly As Multi-Hospital Systems Emerge

THURSDAY, June 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Hospital prices in California increased substantially from 2004 to 2013, with a larger increase in hospitals that are members of multi-hospital systems, according to a study published online June 9 in Inquiry.

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Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Can Cut HBV Transmission

THURSDAY, June 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) during pregnancy can reduce the rate of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), according to a study published in the June 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Increased Prevalence of HPV for Men With Phimosis

THURSDAY, June 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men with phimosis have increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and high-risk HPV genotypes compared with asymptomatic men, according to a study published in the June issue of The Journal of Urology.

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aHSCT Should Be Standard of Care for HIV-Related Lymphoma

WEDNESDAY, June 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Patients living with HIV are at high risk for lymphoma, and, according to a study published online June 13 in Blood, autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (aHSCT) should be standard treatment in these cases.

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HIV Infection Negatively Affects Bone Acquisition

WEDNESDAY, June 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- HIV infection with T cell activation is associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and stiffness, according to a study published online June 10 in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.

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Four-Step Strategy Suggested for Boosting Practice Quality of Care

WEDNESDAY, June 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Four steps can help doctors improve patient care and office efficiency, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Abnormal Pap Posthysterectomy for ~30 Percent of HIV+ Women

TUESDAY, June 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- About one-in-three HIV-infected women with no prehysterectomy history of abnormal Pap results have abnormal vaginal Pap results after hysterectomy, according to a study published in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Treatment Options Reviewed for Herpes Simplex Viral Keratitis

TUESDAY, June 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- There is a need for development of new anti-herpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action for herpes simplex viral keratitis (HSVK), according to a review published online June 6 in Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology.

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Newly-Infected HIV Patients Often Display Neurologic Systems

MONDAY, June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many newly infected HIV patients experience neurological symptoms, but they tend to be mild and subside after initiation of antiretroviral treatment, according to a study published online June 10 in Neurology.

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FDA Approves Cholera Vaccine for U.S. Travelers

MONDAY, June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The first vaccine to protect American travelers from cholera has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Benefits of Breastfeeding May Be Compromised by Antibiotics

MONDAY, June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Early use of antibiotics may weaken some of the benefits of breastfeeding, according to a study published online June 13 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Ob-Gyns Should Promote HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

MONDAY, June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Obstetrician-gynecologists can play a critical role in reducing HIV transmission by promoting pre-exposure prophylaxis, according to a commentary published in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Review Links H. pylori Infection With Metabolic Syndrome

MONDAY, June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with metabolic syndrome, according to a review and meta-analysis published online June 7 in the Journal of Digestive Diseases.

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WHO Advises Delaying Pregnancy in Zika-Affected Areas

FRIDAY, June 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In order to avoid having infants with Zika-related birth defects, women living in areas where the virus is circulating should consider delaying pregnancy, according to the World Health Organization.

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Risk of S. aureus Bacteremia Up in Patients on Glucocorticoids

FRIDAY, June 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Patients taking systemic glucocorticoids are at higher risk for community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (CA-SAB), according to research published online June 8 in Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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USPSTF Recommends Screening for Syphilis Infection

TUESDAY, June 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for syphilis infection in non-pregnant persons who are at increased risk of infection. These findings form the basis of a recommendation statement published in the June 7 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Zika Virus May Be Transmitted Through Oral Sex

FRIDAY, June 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- It may be possible to transmit Zika virus through oral sex, according to a research letter published in the June 2 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Post-CABG Infection Risk Up Significantly for Severely Obese

FRIDAY, June 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Severely obese patients may have a higher risk of certain complications after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery than normal-weight patients, according to a study published online June 1 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Chemical Reactions Can Create Health Hazards in Pools, Hot Tubs

THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The disinfectants used to keep pools clean can create dangerous disinfection byproducts (DBPs) when combined with sweat, personal care products, and urine, according to research published online April 28 in Environmental Science & Technology.

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AMA Module Promotes Training of Medical Assistants

THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new training module can improve training for medical assistants (MAs), according to a report from the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Patients Like to See Physicians Wearing White Coats

THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Most patients prefer that physicians wear white coats, according to research published online June 1 in JAMA Dermatology.

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Triclosan Exposure Affects Microbiome Structure, Diversity

THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Triclosan exposure affects the structure and diversity of the microbiome in adult zebrafish, according to research published online May 18 in PLOS ONE.

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New Program May Help Cut UTIs Associated With Catheter Use

THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new program may help reduce both urinary catheter use and its associated infections, according to research findings published in the June 2 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Baby With Zika-Related Microcephaly Born at N.J. Hospital

WEDNESDAY, June 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A woman from Honduras who apparently became infected with the Zika virus in her home country gave birth Tuesday in a New Jersey hospital to a baby girl with microcephaly, officials said.

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