February 2016 Briefing - Pulmonology

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for February 2016. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Air Pollution Tied to Adverse Effect on Metabolic Parameters

MONDAY, Feb. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Short-term exposure to air pollutants adversely affects glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and blood lipid concentrations in Mexican-American populations, according to a study published online Feb. 11 in Diabetes Care.

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Late Surfactant Does Not Cut Duration of Ventilation in BPD

MONDAY, Feb. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Late administration of surfactant does not reduce the duration of ventilation in very preterm neonates with prolonged respiratory distress, according to research published online Feb. 29 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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CDC: Flu Season Continues to Be Mild; Vaccine Is Effective

THURSDAY, Feb. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- This flu season continues to be mild, while the flu vaccine is working better than the one used last season, with an overall efficacy of 59 percent, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Public Reporting of Hospital Readmissions Hasn't Cut Rates

THURSDAY, Feb. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, and pneumonia, the release of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) public reporting of hospital readmission rates has had no impact on 30-day readmission trends, according to a study published in the March 1 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Research Suggests Nurses May Be Unaware of VAP Guidelines

THURSDAY, Feb. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Intensive care unit nurses' may have inadequate knowledge of evidence-based guidelines for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) prevention, according to an Iranian study published online Feb. 4 in the Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine.

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Suggestions for Optimizing Practice Feedback Effectiveness

THURSDAY, Feb. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In an article published online Feb. 23 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, 15 suggestions are presented to optimize the effectiveness of practice feedback.

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PET Scans May Be Overused in Monitoring of Cancer Survivors

TUESDAY, Feb. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many lung and esophageal cancer survivors have positron emission tomography (PET) imaging scans as part of ongoing monitoring, but many of those scans may be unnecessary, according to a study published online Feb. 22 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Bariatric Surgery Tied to Drop in Heart Failure Exacerbations

TUESDAY, Feb. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Bariatric surgery to promote substantial weight loss is linked to reduced rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for heart failure exacerbations among obese patients with the condition, according to research published in the March 1 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Feedback From High-Profile Messenger Can Cut Antibiotic Rx

FRIDAY, Feb. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Feedback from a high-profile messenger can reduce antibiotic prescribing on a national scale, according to a study published online Feb. 18 in The Lancet.

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Pulmonary Artery Pressure-Guided Tx Cuts Hospitalizations

THURSDAY, Feb. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Ambulatory pulmonary artery (PA) pressure-guided management of heart failure patients is more effective in reducing heart failure hospitalizations than management of patient clinical signs/symptoms alone, according to a study published online Feb. 10 in JACC: Heart Failure.

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Many Med Schools Appear Unwelcoming Regarding Disability

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Most medical schools need to post, update, or clarify technical standards (TSs), required under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), that detail what a school will do to accommodate a student with a disability, according to a study published online Jan. 19 in Academic Medicine.

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Interstitial Lung Abnormalities Linked to Increased Mortality

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Interstitial lung abnormalities correlate with increased risk of all-cause mortality, according to research published in the Feb. 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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CPX Testing Predicts Mortality in Heart Failure With Reduced EF

TUESDAY, Feb. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Variables measured during a cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) test can predict and discriminate mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), according to a study published in the Feb. 23 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Computer-Assisted Stethoscope Can ID Respiratory Sounds

TUESDAY, Feb. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A computer-assisted stethoscope can quickly and accurately identify respiratory sounds, according to a research letter published online Feb. 16 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Hypoxia Challenge Test Can ID Fitness to Fly in Neonates

MONDAY, Feb. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) fail hypoxia challenge testing (HCT) and cannot be deemed fit to fly, according to a study published online Feb. 15 in Pediatrics.

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Lower Oxygen Saturation Target Linked to Risks for Preemies

MONDAY, Feb. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Use of a lower oxygen saturation target in preterm infants is associated with increased risks, according to research published online Feb. 10 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Net Returns Projected to Top Investment in Vaccines

MONDAY, Feb. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Projected immunizations are estimated to yield returns that are greater than costs in low- and middle-income countries during 2011 to 2020, according to a study published in the February issue of Health Affairs.

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Unexpected Decline in TB Among Foreign-Born in the U.S.

MONDAY, Feb. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An abrupt decline in the number of reported tuberculosis (TB) cases among foreign-born persons in the United States began in 2007, according to research published online Feb. 10 in PLOS ONE.

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Beet Juice Aids BP, Aerobic Endurance With Heart Failure

FRIDAY, Feb. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Beetroot juice (BRJ) improves submaximal aerobic endurance and blood pressure in elderly patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), according to a small study published online Feb. 10 in JACC: Heart Failure.

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Use of Digoxin Down Among Patients With Heart Failure

FRIDAY, Feb. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Only one-in-five patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) receive digoxin at discharge, according to a study published online Feb. 10 in JACC: Heart Failure.

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CDC: Number of Uninsured Persons in U.S. Down Since 2013

FRIDAY, Feb. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The percentage of uninsured persons is decreasing in the United States, according to a report published by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

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Sedatives Appear to Be Safe in Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

FRIDAY, Feb. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome, treatment with high-dose intravenous sedatives is not associated with excess morbidity or mortality, according to a study published in the February issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Active Asthma Ups Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

THURSDAY, Feb. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Asthma is associated with increased risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and rupture, according to research published online Feb. 11 in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

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Physicians Concerned By Increasing Cost of Generics

THURSDAY, Feb. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pennsylvania physicians have called for state- and national-level medical associations to take an active role in addressing the issue of increasing generic drug prices, according to an article published by the Pennsylvania Medical Society.

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CDC: Rate of Smoking 8.4 Percent at Any Time During Pregnancy

THURSDAY, Feb. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The rate of smoking during pregnancy is about 8.4 percent, with greater prevalence among women aged 20 to 24 years, according to a Feb. 10 report published by the National Center for Health Statistics.

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Hospital Cluster of H7N9 Influenza Infections Identified

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A hospital cluster of avian influenza A (H7N9) infection has been identified, according to a letter to the editor published in the Feb. 11 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Cola Intake Increases Exposure of Erlotinib

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Cola intake leads to a clinically relevant and statistically significant increase in the bioavailability of erlotinib during esomeprazole treatment, according to a study published online Feb. 8 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Admission to VA or Non-VA Hospitals Impacts Outcome

TUESDAY, Feb. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For older men, mortality and readmission for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, and pneumonia vary with admission to Veterans Affairs (VA) and non-VA hospitals, according to a study published in the Feb. 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Sepsis Tied to Higher Post-Discharge Mortality Risk

TUESDAY, Feb. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sepsis survivors have a substantially increased risk of all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events after discharge, according to a study published online Jan. 25 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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AMA Highlights Issues Relating to Medical Liability Reform

MONDAY, Feb. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Medical liability reforms are likely to be advanced and challenged in 2016, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Histopathologic Findings Described for MERS-CoV Autopsy

FRIDAY, Feb. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The main histopathologic findings of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection are diffuse alveolar damage in the lungs and evidence of chronic disease in other organs, according to research published online Feb. 5 in The American Journal of Pathology.

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Allergies, Asthma, Eczema Tied to Lower Risk of Glioma

FRIDAY, Feb. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with respiratory allergies, asthma, and eczema may be less likely to develop a glioma, according to a study published in the February issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Doctors Offer Suggestions for Electronic Health Records

FRIDAY, Feb. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians recently met in Seattle to discuss the difficulties and benefits associated with electronic health records (EHRs) in a third town hall meeting on the subject, according to a report published by the American Medical Association.

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Five-Year Mortality, Costs Up for ICU Survivors

FRIDAY, Feb. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Intensive care unit (ICU) patients surviving to hospital discharge have higher five-year mortality and hospital resource use than hospital controls, according to a study published online Jan. 27 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Seven Tips Provided for Optimizing Practice Revenue

THURSDAY, Feb. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Business operations data represent a relatively untapped resource for optimizing practice revenue, and can indicate areas of strength and opportunities for improvement, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Video Games Offer Educational Methods for Med Students

THURSDAY, Feb. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Video games can play a role in medical education, offering new methods for teaching medical students, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Patient-Centered System Recommended for Medical Billing

THURSDAY, Feb. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Simplification, consolidation, and real time point-of-care information could address the inefficiencies in the medical billing system, according to an Ideas and Opinions piece published online Feb. 2 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Intubation Duration for COPD Unchanged by Acetazolamide

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Acetazolamide does not differ from placebo in effect on the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to research published in the Feb. 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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ACIP Approves 2016 Adult Immunization Schedule

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has approved the recommended adult immunization schedule for 2016. The recommendations are published as a clinical guideline in the Feb. 2 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Tips Presented for Encouraging Treatment Adherence

TUESDAY, Feb. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Tips for increasing patient adherence to treatment plans include patient engagement and addressing barriers to adherence, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Echo Underused During Critical Cardiovascular Hospitalizations

TUESDAY, Feb. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Despite increasing rates of use, echocardiography (echo) may be underused during critical cardiovascular hospitalizations, according to a study published in the Feb. 9 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Mobile Texts May Up Adherence to Meds for Chronic Illness

MONDAY, Feb. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Mobile telephone text messaging may be a promising new way to improve adherence to medications for chronic diseases, according to research published online Feb. 1 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Palliative Care Lacking for Chronic Lung Disease Patients

MONDAY, Feb. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Among patients who die in the intensive care unit (ICU), patients with chronic lung diseases receive fewer elements of palliative care than cancer patients, according to a study published online Jan. 19 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Patients and Families Highlight Value of Nurse Practitioners

MONDAY, Feb. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Patients and their families believe that teams in acute and primary care are more effective when they include nurse practitioners, according to research published online Jan. 27 in the Journal of Clinical Nursing.

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