December 2015 Briefing - Pulmonology

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for December 2015. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

AMA: Burnout Is Top Issue for Physicians in 2015

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 30, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Physician burnout is the top issue for physicians in 2015, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Higher Hospital Prices in U.S. 'Monopoly Markets'

MONDAY, Dec. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Prices at hospitals in monopoly markets are 15 percent higher than those at hospitals in areas with at least four providers, according to research published recently at the Health Care Pricing Project website.

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Increase in Child Asthma Has Ceased Overall, but Not for Poor

MONDAY, Dec. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- From 2001 to 2009 there was an increase in childhood asthma prevalence, which plateaued and then started to decline in 2013, according to a study published online Dec. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Modifiable Factors Affect Racial Differences in Lung Cancer

MONDAY, Dec. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Racial/ethnic variation is evident in lung cancer incidence and mortality among postmenopausal women, but other factors may have an influence, according to a study published online Dec. 23 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Selexipag Linked to Reduced Risk of Death, Complications in PAH

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, selexipag is associated with a reduced risk of a composite end point of death or pulmonary arterial hypertension-related complications, according to a study published in the Dec. 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Both Smoking Bans and Cigarette Taxes Deter Smokers

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Comprehensive cigarette bans are most effective at limiting smoking among casual users, but high taxes may have the most impact on people who smoke more than a pack a day, according to a study published online Dec. 21 in the American Journal of Public Health.

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FDA Approves Uptravi for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

TUESDAY, Dec. 22, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Uptravi (selexipag) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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Specific, Consistent ICD-10 Coding Key to Timely Payments

TUESDAY, Dec. 22, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- In order to prevent denials, it is important to code correctly within the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), with specificity matching documentation, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Few Get Rx to Help Quit Smoking After COPD Hospitalization

TUESDAY, Dec. 22, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A minority of patients discharged with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) receive pharmacologic treatment for tobacco use, and treatment is not associated with smoking cessation, according to a study published online Dec. 14 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Pembrolizumab Shows Promise in Metastatic NSCLC

MONDAY, Dec. 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) may extend survival for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to a study published online Dec. 19 in The Lancet. The research was also presented at the annual meeting of the European Society for Medical Oncology, held from Dec. 18 to 21 in Singapore.

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Affordable Care Act Has Improved Access to Care, Affordability

MONDAY, Dec. 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of the Affordable Care Act has improved access to care and affordability of care for many adults, according to a study published in the December issue of Health Affairs.

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Daily Spirometry Can Give Early Warning of Pneumonia in AML

MONDAY, Dec. 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), patient-performed daily spirometry (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1]) is effective for early identification of pneumonia, according to a study published online Dec. 10 in the American Journal of Hematology.

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Many Patients With Diagnosed OSA Not Receiving Treatment

FRIDAY, Dec. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many patients with diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are not being treated, with only 42 percent reporting adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment, according to research published in the November issue of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

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Industry Outpacing NIH in Funding Research

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- There's been a sharp rise in the number of industry-funded clinical trials and a significant decline in those financed by the U.S. government in recent years, according to findings published in the Dec. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Roughly Half of U.S. Hospitals Require Staff Flu Vaccination

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The majority of U.S. hospitals don't require health care providers to get a seasonal flu vaccine, according to a study published online Nov. 27 in Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology.

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Nasal, Pharyngeal EPX Levels Linked to Sputum Eosinophilia

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For individual patients with poorly-controlled asthma, nasal and pharyngeal eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) levels are strongly associated with the eosinophil percentage of induced sputum, according to a study published online Dec. 8 in Allergy.

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Dose-Linked Pulmonary Complications After FFP Infusion

TUESDAY, Dec. 15, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- About 20 percent of patients administered fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to reverse warfarin anticoagulation develop pulmonary complications, with highest risk seen with more than three units of FFP, according to a study published online Dec. 8 in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

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Omalizumab Highly Effective for Severe Allergic Asthma

TUESDAY, Dec. 15, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Omalizumab appears to be highly effective for the management of severe allergic asthma, according to a review of "real-life" effectiveness studies published online Dec. 8 in Allergy.

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Interaction Described Between Acenocoumarol, Levofloxacin

MONDAY, Dec. 14, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- More frequent monitoring may be required when patients are taking both acenocoumarol and levofloxacin due to the possibility of an adverse interaction, according to a case report published in the December issue of the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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New Model of Inpatient Care Can Improve Outcomes

MONDAY, Dec. 14, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of a new model of care can improve outcomes of care in medical and surgical units, according to a study published in the December issue of the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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FDA Approves Alecensa for ALK-Positive NSCLC

FRIDAY, Dec. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Alecensa (alectinib) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug administration to treat anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small-cell lung cancer, the agency said Friday in a news release.

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Asthma Tied to Increased Risk of Chronic Migraines

FRIDAY, Dec. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People with asthma may be more than twice as likely to develop chronic migraines as those without asthma, according to a study published online Nov. 19 in Headache.

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Toxic Skin Effects Common With EGFR-TKI Use in NSCLC

FRIDAY, Dec. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) is associated with skin toxic effects, according to a research letter study published online Dec. 10 in JAMA Dermatology.

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Seven Behaviors Suggested to Improve 'Art of Medicine'

FRIDAY, Dec. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Seven behaviors should be implemented to improve the art of medicine, which can help improve relationships with patients, according to an article published in Family Practice Management.

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Central Venous Pressure-Guided Hydration Beneficial in CKD, CHF

FRIDAY, Dec. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) undergoing coronary procedures, central venous pressure (CVP)-guided hydration is associated with reduced risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), according to a study published online Dec. 9 in JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions.

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Nitrates in Heart Failure May Harm More Than Help

THURSDAY, Dec. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Nitrates don't improve quality of life or everyday activity levels as intended in patients with heart failure, according to research published in the Dec. 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Interlobar Collateral Ventilation Impacts EB Valve Outcomes

THURSDAY, Dec. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A more careful selection of patients could help improve the success rate of bronchoscopic lung-volume reduction with the use of one-way endobronchial valves in patients with emphysema, according to a study published in the Dec. 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Percentage of Graduates Entering GME Stable Over Past Decade

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Despite an increase in the number of U.S. medical school graduates, over the past decade the percentage entering graduate medical education (GME) training has remained stable, according to a research letter published in the Dec. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on medical education.

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Depression Not Uncommon Among Resident Physicians

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- More than one in four doctors-in-training may be depressed, which could put their patients at risk, according to a study published in the Dec. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on medical education.

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Expiratory Snoring Predicts COPD in Sleep Disordered Breathing

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with sleep disordered breathing (SDB), expiratory snoring predicts obstructive airway disorders, according to a study published online Dec. 2 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Med Ed Can Be Improved for High-Value, Cost-Conscious Care

TUESDAY, Dec. 8, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The combination of effective transmission of knowledge, facilitation of reflective practice, and a supportive environment can educate physicians to deliver high-value, cost-conscious care, according to a review published in the Dec. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on medical education.

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CDC: Fewer Americans Struggling With Medical Bills

TUESDAY, Dec. 8, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Fewer American families are struggling to pay medical bills, according to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

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U.S. Health Care Spending Increased in 2014

TUESDAY, Dec. 8, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The expansion of insurance coverage and increases in retail prescription drug spending contributed to an increase in total national health care expenditures in 2014, according to a report published online Dec. 2 in Health Affairs.

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Excess Relative Risk of Repeat CT Scans Can Be Quantified

FRIDAY, Dec. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Excess relative risk of computed tomography (CT) scans for quantification of cystic fibrosis (CF) can be calculated, according to a letter published in the Dec. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Guidelines Promote Awareness, Use of Pulmonary Rehabilitation

FRIDAY, Dec. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Guidelines for enhanced implementation, use, and delivery of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) have been presented in a policy statement published in the Dec. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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AMA: Case Before Supreme Court Threatens Patient Privacy

THURSDAY, Dec. 3, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A case before the Supreme Court is potentially threatening patient confidentiality, according to the American Medical Association (AMA).

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IV Diuretics Deemed Safe in Outpatient Heart Failure Care

THURSDAY, Dec. 3, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Intravenous (IV) diuretics appear to be safe and effective for outpatient volume management in heart failure, according to a study published online Dec. 2 in JACC: Heart Failure.

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Depression Ups Readmission Odds for COPD Exacerbation

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Depression is independently associated with increased risk of readmission for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to a study published online Nov. 24 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Asthma Risk Up Slightly for Planned C-Section Children

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Children born by planned cesarean delivery appear to have slightly higher odds of developing asthma than those born through vaginal delivery, researchers report in the Dec. 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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CPAP, Mandibular Advancement Devices Both Help Lower BP

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and mandibular advancement devices (MADs) each produce a modest reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure rates in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, according to a meta-analysis published in the Dec. 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Burnout Rates on the Rise for Physicians

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Burnout is a growing problem among American doctors, according to research published in the December issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

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Benefits for Intra-, Extracapsular Tonsillectomy in Peds OSA

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), both extracapsular tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (ETA) and intracapsular tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (ITA) are effective, according to a study published online Nov. 19 in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.

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Transfusion, Mortality Link Varies With Hemoglobin Levels

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For critically ill patients, the impact of transfusion on mortality varies with hemoglobin (Hgb) levels and with the presence of comorbid heart disease, according to a study published in the Dec. 8 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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