August 2017 Briefing - Emergency Medicine

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Emergency Medicine for August 2017. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

CPR Less Likely for Cardiac Arrests in Black Neighborhoods

THURSDAY, Aug. 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- In cases of cardiac arrest, the racial make-up of the neighborhood may determine the likelihood of receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) from a passer-by or having access to a public defibrillator, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in JAMA Cardiology.

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Transvenous Pacemaker Complications Common, Costly

THURSDAY, Aug. 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of complications for single- and dual-chamber transvenous pacemakers (TVPs) is considerable, reaching about 15 and 16 percent, respectively, by three years, with high associated costs, according to research published online Aug. 30 in JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology.

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FDA Approves Vabomere for Complicated UTIs

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The intravenous antibiotic Vabomere (meropenem and vaborbactam) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat certain complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis.

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Many Parents Aren't Divulging CAM Use to Child's Provider

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Parents often try complementary treatments when their children are ill, but many don't tell their pediatricians about it, according to a report published online Aug. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Clinicians Urged to Heighten Alert for Perinatal Suicide Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Suicide is a leading cause of death among pregnant and recently pregnant women, according to a study published online Aug. 28 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Low Rate of Recurrence Seen for Serious Reactions to Vaccines

TUESDAY, Aug. 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Severe vaccine reactions recur rarely, if ever, when a child receives the same vaccine again, or one with similar ingredients, according to a review published online Aug. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Tidal CO2 Prognostic for Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary HTN

MONDAY, Aug. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels are prognostic for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), according to a letter to the editor published online Aug. 14 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Less Than Half of Seniors With A-Fib Receive Anticoagulants

MONDAY, Aug. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Less than 45 percent of older adults with atrial fibrillation (AF) admitted to the hospital are prescribed an anticoagulant, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Opioids Often Prescribed Unnecessarily for Migraine

FRIDAY, Aug. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Too many patients with migraines are prescribed opioids, while too few may be getting recommended medications, according to research published recently in Cephalalgia.

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Cycling Crash Deaths Rising in the United States

FRIDAY, Aug. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Bicyclist deaths on U.S. roadways are up significantly, and men -- not children -- are commonly the victims, a new report finds.

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Meth Use Tied to Higher Risk of Stroke in Younger People

THURSDAY, Aug. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Younger adults who use methamphetamine appear to be at greater risk for stroke, particularly hemorrhagic stroke, according to research published online Aug. 23 in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.

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Increased Risk of MI, Stroke for Patients With Hip Fracture

THURSDAY, Aug. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with hip fracture have an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.

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Day-Supply of Opioid Rx Factor in Likelihood of Long-Term Use

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The days supplied is far more important than the dosage level or even the type of pain being treated in risk of opioid use disorder following opioid prescription, according to a study published recently in The Journal of Pain.

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Nurse-, System-Related Factors Analyzed in Wrong-Patient Events

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Greater focus is needed on correct identification processes in order to prevent wrong-patient medication administration incidents, and system supports for nurses are critical, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in the Journal of Clinical Nursing.

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Oral Corticosteroids No Benefit for LRI in Non-Asthmatic Adults

TUESDAY, Aug. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For adults without asthma, with acute cough and at least one lower respiratory tract symptom, prednisolone does not reduce cough duration or severity, according to a study published in the Aug. 22/29 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Even Overdose Doesn't Stop Opioid Prescribing

TUESDAY, Aug. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- After treatment for an opioid overdose, many Medicaid patients continue to receive prescriptions for them and few are prescribed anti-addiction medications after hospital discharge, according to a research letter published in the Aug. 22/29 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Occult Cancer Found in ~5 Percent With Unprovoked VTE

TUESDAY, Aug. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- About one in 20 patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) have occult cancer detected within one year, according to a review published online Aug. 22 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Hours Worked Impacted by Kids for Female, Not Male Doctors

MONDAY, Aug. 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For women, but not men, in dual-physician couples, weekly hours worked are lower for those with versus those without children, according to a research letter published online Aug. 21 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Study Highlights Readmit Factors Post Atrial Flutter Ablation

THURSDAY, Aug. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Recognition of factors associated with early readmission for patients after atrial flutter (AFL) ablation is necessary for reducing costs and improving quality of life, according to a study published online Aug. 11 in the Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology.

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Opioid Rx Frequently Issued for Nonspecific, Spinal Conditions

THURSDAY, Aug. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Within a cohort of patients insured through TRICARE, the most common diagnosis associated with initial opioid prescription is other ill-defined conditions, according to a research letter published online Aug. 16 in JAMA Surgery.

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Frequency, Degree of Pubic Hair Grooming Linked to Injury Risk

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The frequency and degree of pubic hair grooming is associated with the risk of grooming-related injury and high-frequency injury, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in JAMA Dermatology.

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Geriatric Trauma Outcome Score Estimates Unfavorable Discharge

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The geriatric trauma outcome score II (GTOS II) prognostic calculator can estimate the probability of unfavorable discharge in injured elders, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Emergency Departments See Few Cases of Sepsis in Adolescents

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A typical emergency department sees few cases of sepsis among adolescents, according to a research letter published online Aug. 14 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Studies Used for FDA Approval of Device Changes Often Low Quality

TUESDAY, Aug. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many studies used to support U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of high-risk medical device modifications are not controlled; and efficacy of drugs granted accelerated approval is often confirmed three years after approval, according to two studies published in the Aug. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Diverse Spectrum of Neurologic Syndromes Seen With Zika

TUESDAY, Aug. 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is associated with increased incidence of neurological syndromes, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in JAMA Neurology.

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Short-Term Risk of Arterial Embolism Up in Cancer Patients

MONDAY, Aug. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of arterial thromboembolism is increased in the short term among patients with incident cancer, according to a study published in the Aug. 22 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Cannabis Intoxication Admissions in Children Up in France

MONDAY, Aug. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- From 2004 to 2014 there was an increase in annual admissions in France for children with unintentional cannabis intoxication, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in Pediatrics.

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ICU Admissions for Opioid Overdose Up From 2009 to 2015

MONDAY, Aug. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- From 2009 to 2015 there was an increase in opioid overdose admissions requiring intensive care, as well as in associated mortality, according to a study published online Aug. 11 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Most Common Arrhythmia: Intra-Atrial Re-Entrant Tachycardia

MONDAY, Aug. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with congenital heart disease and atrial arrhythmias, the most common presenting arrhythmia is intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia (IART), according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Increase in Alcohol Use, High-Risk Drinking in U.S. Adults

THURSDAY, Aug. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- From 2001-2002 to 2012-2013 there was an increase in alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) alcohol use disorder (AUD), according to a study published online Aug. 9 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Smaller Racial Gap in Survival After In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

THURSDAY, Aug. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There has been a considerable reduction in racial differences in survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest, according to a study published online Aug. 9 in JAMA Cardiology.

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Decrease Over Time in Incidence of Strokes in Men

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of all strokes decreased over time in men, but not women, with the difference driven by a decrease in ischemic stroke, according to a study published online Aug. 9 in Neurology.

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Moderate, Vigorous Activity Not Tied to More Elderly Falls

THURSDAY, Aug. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Falls are not more common or injurious in older women who engage in higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), according to a study published online July 29 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Revenue Exceeds Expenditures for Many ABMS Member Boards

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Overall revenue exceeds expenditures for many American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) member boards, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Review: Levetiracetam Best Monotherapy for Partial Seizures

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Levetiracetam performs better than carbamazepine and lamotrigine for individuals with partial seizures, according to a review and meta-analysis published online June 29 in the Cochrane Library.

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U.S. Doctors Still Writing Too Many Opioid Prescriptions

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- More than one out of three average Americans used a prescription opioid in 2015, despite growing concerns these medicines are promoting widespread addiction and overdose deaths, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Conservative Fluid Management Benefits Black ARDS Patients

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), conservative fluid management is associated with reduced mortality for non-Hispanic black, but not white, patients, according to a study published online July 14 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Alarms Could Save Children From Being Left in Hot Cars

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The recent deaths of two Arizona children in hot cars show the need for a proposed federal law that would require carmakers to install alarms for back seats, child advocates say.

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Comprehensive Initiative Has Positive Impact on Opioid Rx

TUESDAY, Aug. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A comprehensive initiative, including creation of prescribing and dispensing policies, monitoring and follow-up processes, and clinical coordination through electronic health record integration, can have a positive impact on opioid prescribing, according to research published online July 14 in the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.

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