August 2016 Briefing - Pulmonology

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for August 2016. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

ACA Is Helping More Americans Afford Prescriptions

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Though a growing number of Americans are able to afford prescription medications, millions still have difficulty, according to a study published online Aug. 23 in the American Journal of Public Health.

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Sacubitril-Valsartan Reasonably Cost-Effective in Heart Failure

TUESDAY, Aug. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, sacubitril-valsartan is cost-effective for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Adults With CVD Have Gaps in Secondhand Smoke Knowledge

MONDAY, Aug. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Low-income adults with cardiovascular disease have considerable gaps in knowledge relating to secondhand smoke (SHS), according to a study published online Aug. 25 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Preventing Chronic Disease.

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Nighttime Sleep Disturbance Common in Chronic Pain

MONDAY, Aug. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals suffering from chronic pain frequently have nighttime sleep disturbance, and it might be exacerbated by opioid treatment, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in Anaesthesia.

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Patients Lacking Straight Answers on Safety of E-Cigarettes

FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors disagree on the best way to answer patient questions about electronic cigarettes, according to a study published online Aug. 26 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Bronchiolitis Plus Gene Variant Raises Asthma Risk in Children

FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A common genetic variation significantly increases the odds of asthma in children who've had a severe respiratory illness at a young age, according to research published online Aug. 24 in PLOS ONE.

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No Impact of Medicaid Expansion on Hospital LOS, Mortality

FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- State Medicaid expansion as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is not associated with length of stay (LOS) or in-hospital mortality among general medicine patients, according to a study published online Aug. 18 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Survival Benefit for Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction

FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with heterogeneous emphysema, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with endobronchial valves (BLVR) is associated with similar survival benefit as lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), according to a research letter published in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Most Clinicians Report That Sleep Quality in ICU Is Poor

FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Most clinicians believe that sleep in the intensive care unit (ICU) is poor and that poor sleep adversely affects patient outcomes, according to a study published in the August issue of the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Endurance-Exercise-Induced Impairments in Atrial Function

FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- During endurance exercise, there is exercise-dose-dependent impairment in atrial function, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging.

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Intussusception Hospitalization Rate Up at Age 8 to 11 Weeks

THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children aged 8 to 11 weeks have an increased rate of intussusception hospitalization after introduction of rotavirus vaccine, according to a study published online Aug. 24 in Pediatrics.

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Diabetes, Insulin Resistance Adversely Affect LV Function

THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Early exposure to diabetes mellitus (DM) or higher insulin resistance (IR) has an adverse effect on left ventricular (LV) remodeling and function, according to research published online Aug. 17 in JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging.

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Cancer Replaces CVD As Leading Cause of Death in 22 States

THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The gap between heart disease and the second-leading cause of death, cancer, has been narrowing since 1968, according to an August data brief published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

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Cardiovascular Disease Risk Up in Late-Onset Asthma Patients

THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Late-onset asthma may increase risk for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, according to a study published online Aug. 24 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Steep Rise in U.S. Drug Prices Tied to Patent Monopolies

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Prescription drug prices are skyrocketing in the United States due in large part to government regulations, according to a study published in the Aug. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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CDC Urges Prevention, Early Recognition of Sepsis

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many cases of life-threatening sepsis could be recognized and treated long before they cause severe illness or death, according to an Aug. 23 Vital Signs report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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A-Fib Tied to Adverse Outcomes in Patients Undergoing PCI

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with in-hospital adverse outcomes, according to a study published in the Aug. 30 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Review: Frailty Status May Predict Outcome After Cardiac Surgery

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Frailty status may be able to predict outcome in older adults undergoing cardiac surgical procedures, although the quality of evidence is variable, according to a review published online Aug. 23 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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ACA Has Increased Rx Drug Use, Cut Out-of-Pocket Spending

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased prescription use and reduced out-of-pocket spending, according to a report published online Aug. 17 in Health Affairs.

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Slight Decline in U.S. Prevalence of Latent TB From 2000 to 2011

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- From 2000 to 2011 there was a slight decline in the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the United States, according to a study published in the Aug. 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Antimicrobial Tx Duration Often Exceeds Recommendations

FRIDAY, Aug. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Antimicrobials are often prescribed for a longer duration than recommended in guidelines, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Legal Issues Impact Delivery of Telehealth

THURSDAY, Aug. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Telehealth technologies can allow delivery of high-quality care at a lower cost, especially in underserved areas, but there is currently no uniform legal approach to telehealth, hampering its provision, according to a Health Policy Brief published online Aug. 15 in Health Affairs.

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Full Med Adherence Reduces Costs for Patients With CVD

THURSDAY, Aug. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Full adherence to guideline-recommended therapies is associated with a reduced rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and cost savings, according to a study published in the Aug. 23 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Acetaminophen Appears Safe for Children With Mild Asthma

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Acetaminophen does not worsen asthma symptoms in young children, according to a study published in the Aug. 18 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Residents Often Order Perceived Unnecessary Lab Tests

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Residents frequently order perceived unnecessary inpatient laboratory tests, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Antenatal Steroids Don't Cut Morbidity in Preterm Twins

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Antenatal administration of corticosteroids is not associated with a reduction in the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm twins, according to research published in the September issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Physician Under-Recognition of Angina Often Occurs

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians frequently under-recognize angina in their patients with coronary artery disease, with under-recognition more likely for patients with heart failure and less-frequent angina, according to research published online Aug. 16 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes.

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U.S. Female Doctors Reimbursed Significantly Less Than Males

TUESDAY, Aug. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Female doctors in the United States make much less than their male colleagues, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in the Postgraduate Medical Journal.

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Antimicrobial Resistance to Carbapenems Increasing

TUESDAY, Aug. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Antimicrobial resistance to carbapenems has increased, and consumption of antibiotics, especially carbapenems, is associated with antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, according to a study published online Aug. 11 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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Unstable Vital Signs for About One in Five Hospital Discharges

MONDAY, Aug. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Among adults with a hospitalization, vital sign instability on discharge is associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality and readmission, according to a study published online Aug. 8 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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RSV Found in Aerosol Particles Surrounding Infants With RSV

FRIDAY, Aug. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-positive bronchiolitis produce large numbers of aerosol particles containing RSV that remain infectious for a significant length of time, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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One-Third of Patients Don't Retain Important Warfarin Info

FRIDAY, Aug. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Just over two-thirds of patients retain an "acceptable" amount of key information following warfarin counseling, according to a small study published online Aug. 6 in the Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research.

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Considerable Health Care System Burden for Undiagnosed COPD

FRIDAY, Aug. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The overall health system burden of exacerbations in patients with undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considerable, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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M. pneumoniae Infection Linked to Guillain-Barré Syndrome

FRIDAY, Aug. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), according to a study published online Aug. 4 in the Annals of Neurology.

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About Half of Older ICU Survivors Have Functional Recovery

THURSDAY, Aug. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- About half of older intensive care unit (ICU) survivors have functional recovery within six months, with higher body mass index and functional self-efficacy associated with recovery, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Resistant Hypertension Linked to Increased Risk of Sleep Apnea

THURSDAY, Aug. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Among adults with hypertension, resistant hypertension (RH) is associated with increased risk of sleep apnea, according to a study published online July 18 in Respirology.

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CA-125 Strategy Cuts Death, Readmission in Heart Failure

THURSDAY, Aug. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients discharged with acute heart failure (AHF), antigen carbohydrate 125-guided therapy (CA125-strategy) is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of one-year death or readmission for AHF, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in JACC: Heart Failure.

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Risk of Post-Op Opioid Abuse Deemed Low for Elderly Patients

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Opioid abuse arises in only a very small fraction -- less than half of 1 percent -- of cases involving surgical patients aged 65 or older, according to a research letter published online Aug. 10 in JAMA Surgery.

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Many U.S. Hospitals Offer Language Services

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Overall, 68.8 percent of hospitals offer language services, with the proportion increasing with level of need, according to research published in the August issue of Health Affairs.

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IV Immunoglobulin Use Up in Interstitial Lung Disease

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is increasingly being used for interstitial lung disease (ILD), despite a lack of evidence for its use, according to research published online Aug. 2 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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ICU May Up Invasive Procedures, Costs, Without Mortality Benefit

MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Hospitals with higher intensive care unit (ICU) utilization for four common conditions have greater use of invasive procedures and costs of hospitalization, but do not have improved hospital mortality, according to a study published online Aug. 8 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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FDA Approves First Generic Version of Tamiflu

MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The first generic version of the flu medication Tamiflu has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Night Hypoxia Tied to Progression of Peds Liver Disease

MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)/hypoxia is associated with progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in pediatric patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), according to a study published online Aug. 5 in the Journal of Hepatology.

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ATS Issues Conditional Guidance for Persistent Infantile Wheezing

FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A committee sanctioned by the American Thoracic Society has developed conditional guidelines for the diagnostic evaluation of infants with recurrent or persistent wheezing, but more research is needed. The guidelines were published in the Aug. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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M-CSF Plays Role in Host Defense in Bacterial Pneumonia

THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The cytokine M-CSF promotes survival of lung and liver mononuclear phagocytes to mediate host defense during bacterial pneumonia, according to an experimental study published in the June 15 issue of The Journal of Immunology.

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Amish Farm Environment May Protect Children From Asthma

THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Amish environment seems to provide protection against asthma and allergic sensitization, according to a study published in the Aug. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Sickle Cell Trait Doesn't Up Mortality Risk in U.S. Soldiers

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sickle cell trait is not associated with a higher risk of death than absence of the trait, but it is associated with a significantly increased risk of exertional rhabdomyolysis, according to a study published in the Aug. 4 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Targeted Therapies Beneficial in KRAS-Mutated NSCLC

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Targeted therapies that do not contain erlotinib can be beneficial for patients with KRAS-mutated (KRAS mut+) advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to a study published online Aug. 1 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Standardized Cardiac Telemetry IDs Cardiac Rhythm Change

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An off-site central monitoring unit (CMU) applying standardized cardiac telemetry is associated with detection and notification of cardiac rhythm and rate changes before emergency response team (ERT) activation, according to a study published in the Aug. 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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House Dust Mite Immunotherapy Effective for Allergic Rhinitis

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), house dust mite (HDM) sublingual immunotherapy is effective and seems safe, according to a study published online July 29 in Allergy.

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Liraglutide Not Beneficial in Advanced Heart Failure

TUESDAY, Aug. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Liraglutide (Victoza) doesn't appear to improve heart function in patients with advanced heart failure, according to a study published in the Aug. 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Memories of Delusions in ICU Include Fact, Fiction

TUESDAY, Aug. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Memories of delusions in the intensive care unit are composed of a mixture of fact and fiction, and are not dependent on the presence of delirium, according to a study published online July 26 in the Journal of Clinical Nursing.

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August Designated National Immunization Awareness Month

MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In order to remind adults of the importance of immunizations throughout life, August is being recognized as National Immunization Awareness Month, according to a report from the American College of Physicians (ACP).

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Hospitalizations for Heart Failure With Preserved EF Common

MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is common among patients hospitalized with acute heart failure, and patients with HFpEF are older, more often female, and frequently have comorbidities, according to a study published in the June issue of The American Journal of Medicine.

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European Countries Implementing Cost-Sharing

MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- European health systems are requiring an increase in cost-sharing measures for patients 50 years of age and older, according to research published in the July issue of Health Affairs.

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