August 2016 Briefing - Pediatrics

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for August 2016. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Review: PCPs Have Critical Role in ID of Pediatric Thyroid Disease

TUESDAY, Aug. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Primary care physicians play an important role in identifying thyroid disease in children and adolescents, according to a review published online Aug. 29 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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AAP Survey Finds More Parents Are Refusing Vaccines

MONDAY, Aug. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In a survey conducted in 2013, 87.0 percent of pediatricians said they had encountered vaccine refusals, an increase from the 74.5 percent who reported refusals during the last survey in 2006. The new survey results were published online Aug. 29 in Pediatrics.

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Early Onset Preeclampsia May Be Linked to Hemangioma

MONDAY, Aug. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Preeclampsia before 34 weeks may be associated with increased risk of hemangioma, although the correlation is attenuated when longer hospital length of stay is accounted for, according to a study published online Aug. 12 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

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Best Practices Developed for Managing Peds Celiac Disease

MONDAY, Aug. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Best practices have been developed for managing children with celiac disease (CD), according to a special article published online Aug. 26 in Pediatrics.

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Bronchiolitis Plus Gene Variant Raises Asthma Risk in Children

FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A common genetic variation significantly increases the odds of asthma in children who've had a severe respiratory illness at a young age, according to research published online Aug. 24 in PLOS ONE.

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Patients Lacking Straight Answers on Safety of E-Cigarettes

FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors disagree on the best way to answer patient questions about electronic cigarettes, according to a study published online Aug. 26 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Intussusception Hospitalization Rate Up at Age 8 to 11 Weeks

THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children aged 8 to 11 weeks have an increased rate of intussusception hospitalization after introduction of rotavirus vaccine, according to a study published online Aug. 24 in Pediatrics.

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Posttraumatic Growth for Parents Post-NICU 'Under-Evaluated'

THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For parents of infants previously hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), posttraumatic growth (PTG) is related to factors such as posttraumatic stress symptoms, positive reinterpretation and growth, and infant survival, according to a study published online Aug. 18 in the Journal of Clinical Nursing.

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Decision Support Tools Cut CT Use in Pediatric Appendicitis Workup

THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For pediatric patients, passive and active decision support tools can reduce unnecessary computed tomography (CT) imaging among pediatric patients undergoing workup for appendicitis, according to a study published online Aug. 23 in Pediatrics.

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Steep Rise in U.S. Drug Prices Tied to Patent Monopolies

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Prescription drug prices are skyrocketing in the United States due in large part to government regulations, according to a study published in the Aug. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Even Mild TBI in Childhood Can Have Long-Term Adverse Effects

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children and adolescents who suffer even mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are more likely to have serious issues later on, including psychiatric disorders and premature death, according to a study published online Aug. 23 in PLOS Medicine.

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Metformin May Help Treatment-Associated Weight Gain in ASD

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Metformin may be effective in decreasing weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotic use in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a study published online Aug. 24 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Genetics May Help Identify Infection in Febrile Infants

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A quick genetic test might one day help doctors determine within hours whether an infant's fever is from a virus or a serious bacterial infection, according to two studies published in the Aug. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Medication-Assisted Treatment Underused in Teen Opioid Addicts

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Resources should be increased to promote use of medication-assisted treatment of opioid addicted adolescents and young adults, according to a policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published online Aug. 22 in Pediatrics.

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In Utero Exposure to Banned PCB Chemicals Tied to Autism Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children exposed to high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in utero may have an increased risk of developing autism, according to research published online Aug. 23 in Environmental Health Perspectives.

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CDC: Breastfeeding Rates on the Rise in the United States

TUESDAY, Aug. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Even though most new mothers in the United States begin breastfeeding their infants at birth, many stop sooner than recommended, according to the 2016 Breastfeeding Report Card from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Imaging Shows Zika-Linked Congenital Brain Abnormalities

TUESDAY, Aug. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Imaging is revealing a wide variety of brain defects, eye defects, hearing issues, and stunted growth in newborns whose mothers were infected with the Zika virus, according to the special report published online Aug. 23 in Radiology.

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Children Shouldn't Consume More Than 6 Tsp of Added Sugars a Day

TUESDAY, Aug. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children and teens should consume no more than 6 teaspoons of added sugars a day, a new American Heart Association (AHA) statement advises. The statement, published online Aug. 22 in Circulation, is based on a review of available scientific research on how sugar affects children's health.

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Obesity Rates Higher Than Expected in Teen Athletes

TUESDAY, Aug. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Student-athletes have similar rates of obesity and high blood pressure as non-athletes, according to research published online Aug. 17 in The Journal of Pediatrics.

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Focusing on Health Helps Curb Obesity, Eating Disorders in Teens

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- When teenagers are overweight, parents and doctors should encourage a healthy lifestyle rather than focus on the number on the scale, according to new guidelines issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and published online Aug. 22 in Pediatrics.

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Postnatal Steroids Tied to Higher Ocular Risk for Premature Infants

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Postnatal corticosteroid use may increase premature infants' risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), according to research published recently in the Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

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Opt-Out Provisions Up Parent Support for HPV Requirement

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Opt-out provisions increase parental support for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine school-entry requirements, according to a study published online Aug. 19 in Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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CDC Updates Guidance on Infants With Congenital Zika

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has released updated interim clinical guidance for health care providers caring for infants born to mothers with possible Zika infection during pregnancy.

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ACA Has Increased Rx Drug Use, Cut Out-of-Pocket Spending

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased prescription use and reduced out-of-pocket spending, according to a report published online Aug. 17 in Health Affairs.

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Postpartum Depression Can Be ID'd During Infant Hospitalization

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Postpartum depression screening conducted during infant hospitalization can identify depression among previously unscreened women, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Modified Checklist With Follow-Up Valid for Autism in Toddlers

MONDAY, Aug. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) with Follow-up Interview (M-CHAT/F), which can be administered by minimally trained primary care physicians (PCPs) is valid and reliable, according to a study published online Aug. 19 in Pediatrics.

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Novel Technique Feasible for Clean-Catch Urine in Infants

FRIDAY, Aug. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new noninvasive bladder stimulation technique can obtain clean-catch urine (CCU) in infants aged younger than 90 days, according to a study published online Aug. 19 in Pediatrics.

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Diet in Pregnancy Could Affect Odds of ADHD in Offspring

FRIDAY, Aug. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An unhealthy diet during pregnancy could influence a child's risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a study published online Aug. 18 in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

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Monogenic Forms of Diabetes Can Occur in Preterm Infants

THURSDAY, Aug. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Monogenic forms of diabetes can occur in preterm infants, according to a study published online Aug. 18 in Pediatrics.

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Legal Issues Impact Delivery of Telehealth

THURSDAY, Aug. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Telehealth technologies can allow delivery of high-quality care at a lower cost, especially in underserved areas, but there is currently no uniform legal approach to telehealth, hampering its provision, according to a Health Policy Brief published online Aug. 15 in Health Affairs.

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Acetaminophen Appears Safe for Children With Mild Asthma

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Acetaminophen does not worsen asthma symptoms in young children, according to a study published in the Aug. 18 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Residents Often Order Perceived Unnecessary Lab Tests

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Residents frequently order perceived unnecessary inpatient laboratory tests, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Season, Region of Birth May Influence Celiac Disease Risk

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Where and when children are born may affect their risk for celiac disease, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

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Antenatal Steroids Don't Cut Morbidity in Preterm Twins

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Antenatal administration of corticosteroids is not associated with a reduction in the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm twins, according to research published in the September issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Expanded Carrier Screening May Up Detection of Genetic Disorders

TUESDAY, Aug. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Compared with current recommendations from professional societies, expanded carrier screening may increase the detection of carrier status for potentially serious genetic conditions, according to a study published in the Aug. 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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U.S. Female Doctors Reimbursed Significantly Less Than Males

TUESDAY, Aug. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Female doctors in the United States make much less than their male colleagues, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in the Postgraduate Medical Journal.

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Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine No Better Than Inactivated

TUESDAY, Aug. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Immunizing children with intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) does not appear to provide better protection against influenza than inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Refugees Have Different Perceptions of Child Development

TUESDAY, Aug. 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Refugees have different perceptions regarding child development, which may influence recognition of developmental concerns, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in Pediatrics.

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Too Many Infants Still Sleeping in Unsafe Positions

MONDAY, Aug. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Despite decades of warnings from the "Back to Sleep" campaign, many parents are still putting their infants to sleep in ways that raise the risk of sudden infant death syndrome, according to research published online Aug. 15 in Pediatrics.

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Taking Acetaminophen While Pregnant May Raise Risk of ADHD

MONDAY, Aug. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who take acetaminophen might raise the risk that their child will develop behavioral problems such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to research published online Aug. 15 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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Topical Timolol Effective, Safe for Infantile Hemangioma

MONDAY, Aug. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with infantile hemangioma (IH), topical timolol maleate is effective and safe, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in Pediatrics.

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RSV Found in Aerosol Particles Surrounding Infants With RSV

FRIDAY, Aug. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-positive bronchiolitis produce large numbers of aerosol particles containing RSV that remain infectious for a significant length of time, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Topical Iodine Can Cause Overestimation of Blood Glucose

FRIDAY, Aug. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Use of topical iodine can cause overestimation of blood glucose (BG) readings, according to a case report published online Aug. 8 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

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Zika May Be Responsible for Arthrogryposis in Newborns

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus may be the cause of joint deformities in the arms and legs of newborns (arthrogryposis), according to a report published online Aug. 9 in The BMJ.

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Many U.S. Hospitals Offer Language Services

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Overall, 68.8 percent of hospitals offer language services, with the proportion increasing with level of need, according to research published in the August issue of Health Affairs.

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Counterfeit Alprazolam Cut With Fentanyl Can Be Fatal

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- At least one San Francisco-area individual died and eight more were treated in the emergency department in late 2015 after taking counterfeit alprazolam (Xanax) tablets that had been cut with fentanyl, according to a case report published online Aug. 8 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Many Americans Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Drinking Water

TUESDAY, Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The levels of polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water exceed government-recommended safety levels for at least six million people in the United States, according to a report published online Aug. 9 in Environmental Science & Technology Letters.

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USPSTF: Evidence Lacking for Lipid Screening in Children, Teens

TUESDAY, Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has concluded that the evidence is currently insufficient to weigh the balance of benefits and harms of screening for lipid disorders in children and adolescents (aged 20 years or younger). These findings form the basis of a final recommendation statement published in the Aug. 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Contemporary ECG Criteria Cuts Costs of Screening Athletes

TUESDAY, Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Contemporary electrocardiographic (ECG) screening criteria can reduce the costs of screening of athletes, according to a study published in the Aug. 16 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Need for Medical Care Offers Chance to Aid Trafficking Victims

TUESDAY, Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Injuries and illness requiring medical care present an opportunity for health care professionals to provide assistance to trafficked persons, according to an article published online Aug. 9 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Night Hypoxia Tied to Progression of Peds Liver Disease

MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)/hypoxia is associated with progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in pediatric patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), according to a study published online Aug. 5 in the Journal of Hepatology.

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Communication Challenges ID'd in Neonatal Encephalopathy

MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Three themes have been identified as communication challenges in neonatal encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia, according to a study published online Aug. 3 in Pediatrics.

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Distress Over False-Positive Cystic Fibrosis Screen Not Lasting

MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Mothers of infants with false-positive (FP) newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) results for cystic fibrosis (CF) report immediate distress, although these concerns are not reflected in psychosocial response measures, according to a study published online Aug. 2 in Pediatrics.

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FDA Approves First Generic Version of Tamiflu

MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The first generic version of the flu medication Tamiflu has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Young Children in Highest Risk Group for Chemical Eye Injuries

MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Young children have the highest rates for chemical ocular injuries, according to research published online Aug. 4 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

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Handheld Probe Allows In Vivo Retinal Imaging in Children

FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An ultracompact handheld probe, weighing only 94 g, allows in vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children, according to research published online Aug. 1 in Nature Photonics.

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Better Visuo-Motor Skills for Children Playing Video Games

FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children who play video games have significantly better visuo-motor skills, while frequent weekly use is associated with conduct problems, according to a study published online July 27 in the Annals of Neurology.

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About One-Third Have Symptom Spikes After Peds Concussion

FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- About one-third of pediatric patients with concussion experience symptom spikes over the consecutive days, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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ATS Issues Conditional Guidance for Persistent Infantile Wheezing

FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A committee sanctioned by the American Thoracic Society has developed conditional guidelines for the diagnostic evaluation of infants with recurrent or persistent wheezing, but more research is needed. The guidelines were published in the Aug. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Increase in Evidence-Based Practice for Children With ADHD

THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- More Medicaid-covered children are receiving treatments that conform to practice standards for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including the use of combined medication and psychotherapy, according to a study published in the July issue of Health Affairs.

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Amish Farm Environment May Protect Children From Asthma

THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Amish environment seems to provide protection against asthma and allergic sensitization, according to a study published in the Aug. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Third Dose of MMR Vaccine Can Help Control Mumps Outbreaks

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A third dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is recommended in cases of mumps outbreak in which transmission is sustained despite high two-dose MMR coverage, according to research published in the July 29 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Hearing Impairment May Be an Early Indicator of Autism

TUESDAY, Aug. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A simple hearing test may help identify young children at risk for autism before they're old enough to speak, according to a study published online July 12 in Autism Research.

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Injuries Up As Trampoline Parks Become More Popular

MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As trampoline parks spring up across the United States, injuries to children have also increased, according to research published online Aug. 1 in Pediatrics.

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Most Children With Epilepsy Have Other Health Issues

MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly 80 percent of children with epilepsy also have other health conditions, such as gastrointestinal disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in Pediatrics.

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European Countries Implementing Cost-Sharing

MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- European health systems are requiring an increase in cost-sharing measures for patients 50 years of age and older, according to research published in the July issue of Health Affairs.

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