August 2015 Briefing - Pulmonology

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for August 2015. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

AMA: Ruling Makes It Easier for Insurers to Terminate Doctors

FRIDAY, Aug. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The outcome of a recent case regarding the termination of physicians by an insurance company following a dispute over the necessity of medical services provided has serious implications for physicians and their patients, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Periop Bridging Unnecessary for Most A-Fib Patients on Warfarin

THURSDAY, Aug. 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For most atrial fibrillation patients taking warfarin who require temporary interruption for a procedure, perioperative bridging with heparin is unnecessary, according to a study published in the Aug. 27 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Cialis Combo Rx Aids Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial HTN

THURSDAY, Aug. 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Tadalafil (Cialis) combined with ambrisentan (Letairis) significantly reduces the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension, according to a study published in the Aug. 27 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Lung Microbiome Similar With/Without HIV

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Lung microbiomes are similar in patients with and without HIV, although oral microbiomes do differ significantly, according to a study published online Aug. 6 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Evidence Supports Flu Vaccine for Nursing Home Residents

TUESDAY, Aug. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New evidence supports yearly influenza vaccination for protection among nursing home residents, a population for whom vaccine efficacy has been questioned, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Too Few Blacks, Hispanics Pursuing Careers As Physicians

TUESDAY, Aug. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Too few members of certain minority groups are pursuing careers in U.S. medicine, resulting in a serious lack of diversity among general practitioners and specialists, according to a research letter published online Aug. 24 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Catheter-Directed, Low-Dose Fibrinolysis Safe, Effective for PE

TUESDAY, Aug. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Ultrasound-facilitated, catheter-directed, low-dose fibrinolysis appears safe and efficacious for acute massive and submassive pulmonary embolism (PE), according to a study published in the Aug. 24 issue of JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions.

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Patient, Family Advisors Can Play Key Role in Practices

FRIDAY, Aug. 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Practices can employ patient and family advisors in order to help them focus on patient-centered care needs, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Report Highlights Ways to Improve Physician Resilience

THURSDAY, Aug. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Strategies can be adopted for improving physician resilience and the ability to handle the challenges presented by patient care, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Advance Care Planning Cuts Burden of Decision Making

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Prior advance care planning cuts surrogates' decision-making burden, according to a study published online Aug. 4 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Risk Factors Can ID Patients More Likely to Be Readmitted

TUESDAY, Aug. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Patients at greatest risk for an unplanned hospital readmission include those with chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, those discharged on Fridays, and those with a high number of previous emergency department visits, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.

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USPSTF Draft Recommendation Urges Against COPD Screening

TUESDAY, Aug. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has found no net benefit for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) screening in asymptomatic adults and consequently recommends against screening. These findings form the basis of a draft recommendation statement published online Aug. 17 by the USPSTF.

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Phototherapy Increases Carbon Monoxide Elimination in Mice

THURSDAY, Aug. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Phototherapy of exposed lungs increases the carbon monoxide (CO) elimination rate in CO-poisoned mice, according to an experimental study published online July 27 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Prophylactic Azithromycin Benefit Lasts After Lung Transplant

THURSDAY, Aug. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For patients undergoing lung transplantation (LTx), prophylactic azithromycin is associated with reduced risk of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), according to a study published online Aug. 4 in the American Journal of Transplantation.

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Antibiotics Often Prescribed for Veterans With ARIs

THURSDAY, Aug. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Though antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) varies greatly among providers, veterans with ARIs commonly receive antibiotics, according to a study published in the July 21 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Exposure to Rude Behavior Harms NICU Team Performance

THURSDAY, Aug. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to rudeness has adverse consequences on the diagnostic and procedural performance of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) team members, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in Pediatrics.

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More Physicians Reporting Dissatisfaction With EHR Systems

THURSDAY, Aug. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- More physicians report being dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with their electronic health record (EHR) system, compared with five years ago, according to a report published by the AmericanEHR Partners and the American Medical Association.

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Studies Highlight Advances in Vaccines for Human RSV

THURSDAY, Aug. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored respiratory syncytial virus (PanAd3-RSV) vaccine candidate and a modified vaccinia Ankara (MBA-RSV) vaccine show potential for human RSV (HRSV), according to two studies published in the Aug. 12 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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HAC Reduction Program Penalty Kicks in for FY2015

TUESDAY, Aug. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The latest Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) effort to reduce hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) is the HAC Reduction Program, according to an Aug. 6 health policy brief published in Health Affairs.

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Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy Can Improve Outcomes in CAP

TUESDAY, Aug. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), systemic corticosteroid therapy is associated with improved outcomes, according to a review published online Aug. 11 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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In-Person Staff Meetings Are Valuable for Health Care Teams

MONDAY, Aug. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- In-person staff meetings, which are not too short or too long and are held frequently, are valuable for health care team operation, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Acute CNS Complications After Breath-Hold Diving in Teens

MONDAY, Aug. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Acute central nervous system complications can occur in children after breath-hold diving, according to a case report published online Aug. 10 in Pediatrics.

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Increase in Chest CT Scans Leads to More Incidental Findings

MONDAY, Aug. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The percentage of incidental pulmonary nodules identified increased from 2006 to 2012, according to a study published online July 27 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Limited Resection Generally Not Equivalent in Stage IA NSCLC

FRIDAY, Aug. 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For older patients with invasive, stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer, limited resection is generally not equivalent to lobectomy, according to a study published online Aug. 3 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Many Hospitals Being Penalized for 30-Day Readmissions

FRIDAY, Aug. 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- About half of the nation's hospitals are being penalized by Medicare for having patients return within a month of discharge, losing a combined $420 million, according to a report published by Kaiser Health.

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Chloride Levels Linked to Mortality in Heart Failure

TUESDAY, Aug. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Serum chloride levels at admission are associated with mortality among patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), according to a study published in the Aug. 11 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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