August 2015 Briefing - Infectious Disease

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for August 2015. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Parents More Likely to Use Abx for 'Pink Eye' vs 'Eye Infection'

FRIDAY, Aug. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Use of the label "pink eye" versus "eye infection" is associated with increased parent intent to use antibiotics despite parents being informed about antibiotics' ineffectiveness for treating symptoms, according to a study published online Aug. 20 in Clinical Pediatrics.

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Low Adherence to Guidelines for Prevention of Catheter Infections

FRIDAY, Aug. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many health care providers don't follow guidelines meant to reduce the risk of infection from arterial catheter placement in intensive care unit patients, according to research published online Aug. 7 in Critical Care Medicine.

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AMA: Ruling Makes It Easier for Insurers to Terminate Doctors

FRIDAY, Aug. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The outcome of a recent case regarding the termination of physicians by an insurance company following a dispute over the necessity of medical services provided has serious implications for physicians and their patients, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Antibiotic Use Linked to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk

FRIDAY, Aug. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Taking antibiotics might increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, new research suggests. The study was published online Aug. 27 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Azithromycin Routine in Hospital Despite Risk for QTc Prolongation

FRIDAY, Aug. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Azithromycin is routinely prescribed to hospitalized patients despite risk factors for corrected QT (QTc) prolongation and administration of interacting medications, according to a study published online Aug. 19 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Cirrhosis in Hepatitis C More Widespread Than Thought

THURSDAY, Aug. 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Severe liver damage may be four times more common among Americans with hepatitis C than previously believed, according to study findings published in the August issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

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CDC: Most U.S. Children Getting Vaccinated

THURSDAY, Aug. 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- More than nine out of 10 U.S. children entered kindergarten last school year protected with the proper immunizations, federal health officials reported Thursday. But, vaccination rates continue to lag in a number of states. The report was published in the Aug. 28 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Low Rates of HIV Testing in Gay and Bisexual Youth

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Gay and bisexual adolescent boys are much less likely to get tested for HIV than their older counterparts, researchers report. The study was published online Aug. 26 in the Journal of Adolescent Health.

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Antiviral Rx May Help Prevent Ebola, Small Study Suggests

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Antiviral drugs may help protect people from developing Ebola after exposure to the virus, a new case study suggests. The results were published online Aug. 25 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Lung Microbiome Similar With/Without HIV

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Lung microbiomes are similar in patients with and without HIV, although oral microbiomes do differ significantly, according to a study published online Aug. 6 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Evidence Supports Flu Vaccine for Nursing Home Residents

TUESDAY, Aug. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New evidence supports yearly influenza vaccination for protection among nursing home residents, a population for whom vaccine efficacy has been questioned, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Too Few Blacks, Hispanics Pursuing Careers As Physicians

TUESDAY, Aug. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Too few members of certain minority groups are pursuing careers in U.S. medicine, resulting in a serious lack of diversity among general practitioners and specialists, according to a research letter published online Aug. 24 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Patient, Family Advisors Can Play Key Role in Practices

FRIDAY, Aug. 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Practices can employ patient and family advisors in order to help them focus on patient-centered care needs, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Significant Rise in Organic Food Recalls in the United States

FRIDAY, Aug. 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- There has been a sharp rise in recalls of organic food products in the United States this year, according to a new report.

Health Highlights: Aug 20, 2015

Report Highlights Ways to Improve Physician Resilience

THURSDAY, Aug. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Strategies can be adopted for improving physician resilience and the ability to handle the challenges presented by patient care, according to a report published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

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FDA Reveals More Violations by Medical Scope Maker

TUESDAY, Aug. 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New violations by the maker of medical scopes recently linked to deadly infections in patients have been discovered by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Health Highlights: Aug 18, 2015

Serious Childhood Infection Tied to Metabolic Disease Later in Life

MONDAY, Aug. 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Infection-related hospitalization (IRH) during childhood is independently associated with adverse adult metabolic variables, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in Pediatrics.

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EMR Care Pathway Aids Treatment of Cellulitis

MONDAY, Aug. 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- An electronic medical record (EMR)-based care pathway improves treatment of cellulitis, according to a study published online July 28 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Pregnancy Mortality Due to H1N1 '09 to '10 Pandemic: 12 Percent

FRIDAY, Aug. 14, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- During the 2009 to 2010 pandemic flu season, 12 percent of pregnancy-related deaths were attributed to confirmed or possible influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 infection, according to research published in the September issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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U.S. Varicella Cases Drop Sharply Due to Vaccine

FRIDAY, Aug. 14, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Varicella cases in the United States have dropped sharply since a vaccine against the disease became available in 1995, according to a study published online Aug. 12 in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

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Studies Highlight Advances in Vaccines for Human RSV

THURSDAY, Aug. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored respiratory syncytial virus (PanAd3-RSV) vaccine candidate and a modified vaccinia Ankara (MBA-RSV) vaccine show potential for human RSV (HRSV), according to two studies published in the Aug. 12 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Pattern of Cases, Surveillance Data Similar for Lyme Disease

THURSDAY, Aug. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The estimated annual incidence of Lyme disease (LD) is 106.6 cases/100,000 persons in the United States, according to a report published online Aug. 12 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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More Physicians Reporting Dissatisfaction With EHR Systems

THURSDAY, Aug. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- More physicians report being dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with their electronic health record (EHR) system, compared with five years ago, according to a report published by the AmericanEHR Partners and the American Medical Association.

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Antibiotics Often Prescribed for Veterans With ARIs

THURSDAY, Aug. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Though antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) varies greatly among providers, veterans with ARIs commonly receive antibiotics, according to a study published in the July 21 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Migration Contributes to Flat HBV Infection Prevalence Rate in U.S.

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has remained constant since 1999, according to a study published online Aug. 6 in Hepatology.

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ER-Based Test Finds High Prevalence of Hepatitis C

TUESDAY, Aug. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- An emergency department-based screening and diagnostic testing program identified high prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody positivity in adults, according to a study published online Aug. 4 in the Annals of Emergency Medicine.

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Universal 3rd-Trimester Syphilis Rescreening Not Cost-Effective

TUESDAY, Aug. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Universal third-trimester syphilis rescreening is not cost-effective given the national average seroconversion rate, according to a study published in the September issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Review Examines Strategies for Cleaning Hospital Room Surfaces

TUESDAY, Aug. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Methods for cleaning, disinfecting, and monitoring the cleanliness of hospital room surfaces to prevent health care-associated infections (HAIs) have been reviewed. The findings were published online Aug. 11 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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HAC Reduction Program Penalty Kicks in for FY2015

TUESDAY, Aug. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The latest Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) effort to reduce hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) is the HAC Reduction Program, according to an Aug. 6 health policy brief published in Health Affairs.

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In-Person Staff Meetings Are Valuable for Health Care Teams

MONDAY, Aug. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- In-person staff meetings, which are not too short or too long and are held frequently, are valuable for health care team operation, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Many Hospitals Being Penalized for 30-Day Readmissions

FRIDAY, Aug. 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- About half of the nation's hospitals are being penalized by Medicare for having patients return within a month of discharge, losing a combined $420 million, according to a report published by Kaiser Health.

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Rx Use in Pregnancy Common in Low-Income Women

THURSDAY, Aug. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Prescription medications are commonly dispensed to pregnant women enrolled in the U.S. Medicaid program, according to research published in the September issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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HIV Cells Multiply Despite Effective Antiretroviral Therapy

THURSDAY, Aug. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- HIV can continue to multiply in patients who are responding well to antiretroviral therapy, U.K. researchers say. Findings from the study were published online Aug. 4 in EBioMedicine.

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Tenofovir Gel Could Help Prevent Genital Herpes Simplex

THURSDAY, Aug. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Pericoital application of tenofovir gel may substantially cut women's risk of contracting herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), according to a study published in the Aug. 6 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Current Cleaning Protocols Not Enough for Endoscopes

THURSDAY, Aug. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Despite adherence to current U.S. reprocessing guidelines, microbes and biologic debris persist on endoscopes, according to research published in the Aug. 1 issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

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Chronic HCV Diagnosed in 4.2 Percent of Inpatient Cohort

THURSDAY, Aug. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening program diagnosed chronic HCV infection in 4.2 percent of baby boomers tested, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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CDC: Action Needed to Better Control Drug-Resistant Infections

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Almost $8 billion in hospital bills could be avoided over five years by halting the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, according to the Vital Signs report published Aug. 4 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Focus on Consequences May Help Sway Anti-Vaccine Beliefs

TUESDAY, Aug. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Highlighting what might happen if children aren't vaccinated can change the thinking of some people who oppose vaccines, according to research published online Aug. 3 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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WHO: 'Ring' Vaccination for Ebola Very Promising

MONDAY, Aug. 3, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental Ebola vaccine appears highly effective, according to an interim analysis of findings from a clinical trial being conducted in the West African nation of Guinea. An independent body of international experts conducted the review and recommended that the trial of the VSV-EBOV vaccine continue. The findings were published online July 31 in The Lancet.

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Concomitant Administration of 9vHPV With MCV4/Tdap Feasible

MONDAY, Aug. 3, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For 11- to 15-year olds, concomitant administration of Gardasil 9 (9-valent human papillomavirus [9vHPV] vaccine) and Menactra (MCV4; Neisseria meningitides serotypes A/C/Y/W-135) or Adacel (Tdap; diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis) is noninferior to intermittent administration, according to a study published online Aug. 3 in Pediatrics.

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