April 2016 Briefing - Pediatrics

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for April 2016. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

New Six-Item Scale Predicts Sleep Apnea in Children

FRIDAY, April 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A newly developed six-question scale has good predictive utility for identifying obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children, according to a study published online April 25 in Pediatric Anesthesia.

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Wide Variation in Health Care Costs Across the U.S.

FRIDAY, April 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Health care prices vary widely across the United States, even within the same state, according to a study published in the April issue of Health Affairs.

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First Commercial Zika Test Approved by FDA

FRIDAY, April 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The first commercial test to diagnose Zika virus was approved Thursday by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Rates of Acid Suppression Med Rx Still Too High in NICUs

THURSDAY, April 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Despite reported risks, nearly one in four infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are given histamine-2 receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors, according to a study published April 27 in The Journal of Pediatrics.

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Article Discusses Workplace Violence in Health Care

THURSDAY, April 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- There is a lack of data relating to the prevalence of workplace violence in health care and how to address it, according to a review article published in the April 28 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Review Compares Metformin, OCPs for Teens With PCOS

THURSDAY, April 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), treatment with metformin and oral contraceptive pills can be beneficial, although evidence is limited, according to a review published online April 28 in Pediatrics.

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Preventive Topical Steroids Cut Atopic Dermatitis Severity

THURSDAY, April 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Intermittent preventive administration of topical corticosteroids in children controls the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD), according to a study published online April 14 in the Journal of Dermatology.

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Some Primary Care Physician Finances Are Improving

WEDNESDAY, April 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The financial outlook for primary care practices is improving, but not all practices are experiencing the same improvements, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Doctors Have a Only a Few Weeks Left to Review Financial Data

WEDNESDAY, April 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Under the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, physicians have only a few weeks left to review and report disputes relating to their financial ties to drug and medical device manufacturers, according to the American Medical Association.

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U.S. Health Report Card Finds Racial, Ethnic Disparities Persist

WEDNESDAY, April 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An update on Americans' health finds that racial and ethnic disparities persist, with significant gaps in obesity, cesarean births, and dental care. But advances have been made in some important areas, including infant mortality rates, women smokers, and numbers of uninsured, according to the new report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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Atomoxetine Use Doesn't Up Suicide Risk in Children

WEDNESDAY, April 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment with the selective noradrenalin-reuptake-inhibitor atomoxetine is not associated with increased suicide risk compared with stimulant use in children and adolescents, according to a study published online April 26 in Pediatrics.

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Influenza Vaccination Timing Appears to Affect Efficacy

TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza vaccination may be more effective when people receive it in the morning than in the afternoon, according to a study published online April 26 in Vaccine.

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Severe Childhood Obesity Still on the Rise in the United States

TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Examining national data from 1999 through 2014, researchers found that one-third of American children aged 2 to 19 were overweight, nearly one-quarter were obese, and more than 2 percent were severely obese. The report was published online April 25 in Obesity.

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Detergent Packets a Growing Poison Danger to Children

TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A growing number of small children are getting their hands and mouths on colorful detergent packets, with serious and sometimes fatal consequences, according to a report published online April 25 in Pediatrics.

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Higher Arsenic Levels Detected in Infants Fed Rice-Based Cereals

TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Infants fed rice-based foods may have significantly higher inorganic arsenic concentrations in their urine than those who never eat rice, according to a report published online April 25 in JAMA Pediatrics.

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High-Dose Methotrexate Beneficial in Youth With B-ALL

TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For children and young adults with high-risk B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, high-dose methotrexate is associated with superior five-year event-free survival (EFS) compared with Capizzi methotrexate, according to a study published online April 25 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Direct Primary Care Is Emerging Business Model

TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Direct primary care, where doctors bypass insurance companies, is an emerging business model, according to an article published in The Boston Globe.

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AAP: ALTE Now Termed 'Brief Resolved Unexplained Events'

MONDAY, April 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The new term, "brief resolved unexplained events" (BRUE), replaces the previous term, "apparent life-threatening events" (ALTE), per an expert panel from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The new AAP clinical guideline was published online April 25 in Pediatrics.

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A Doctor's View: EHRs Impair Physician-Patient Relationship

MONDAY, April 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic health records (EHRs) may be impairing the physician-patient relationship, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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Heavy Cannabis Use in Teen Years Tied to Earlier Mortality

FRIDAY, April 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men who were heavy cannabis smokers in their teens may not live as long as those who did not use cannabis when they were young, according to a study published online April 22 in The American Journal of Psychiatry.

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CDC: Suicide Rate Up 24 Percent in the United States Since 1999

FRIDAY, April 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Suicide rates in the United States rose 24 percent between 1999 and 2014, with young girls and middle-aged men accounting for the largest increases, according to an April data brief published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

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Physicians Can Get Involved in Developing Payment Models

FRIDAY, April 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors can be involved in developing new payment models for their practices, according to the American Medical Association.

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How One Health System Is Shifting From Volume to Value

FRIDAY, April 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- ACCESS Health System, which operates 36 health centers, is transitioning to a patient-centered, physician-friendly health system that provides a continuum of care to underserved populations, according to the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Cow's Milk Allergy in Childhood May Lead to Lower Bone Density

THURSDAY, April 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children who are allergic to cow's milk may have lower bone mineral density than those with other food allergies, according to a study published online April 20 in Pediatrics.

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CBT Helps Teens With Depression Who Refuse Antidepressants

WEDNESDAY, April 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teenagers with depression who refuse antidepressants may benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy, according to a study published online April 20 in Pediatrics.

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Diffusion-Weighted Imaging + MRI OK for Undescended Testes

WEDNESDAY, April 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Combined diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) show a greater performance compared to conventional MRI alone for identification of non-palpable undescended testes (UDTs), according to a study published online April 6 in the Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology.

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Digital Assistant in Closed-Loop Control Mode Beneficial in T1DM

WEDNESDAY, April 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with type 1 diabetes, a portable, wearable, wireless artificial pancreas system (the Diabetes Assistant [DiAs]) improves glucose control at home in closed-loop control (CLC) modes, according to a study published online April 13 in Diabetes Care.

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Simulation Helps Residents Prepare for Global Rotations

FRIDAY, April 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Simulation can help pediatric residents prepare for global health electives (GHE), according to an article published online April 13 in Pediatrics.

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2016 Match Marks Record Highs for Registrants, Matching

FRIDAY, April 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The 2016 Match was the largest ever recorded by the National Resident Matching Program, with a higher match rate that 2015, according to a report from the American Medical Association.

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Severe Cerebral Damage ID'd on Imaging in Children With Zika

FRIDAY, April 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children with congenital infection, presumably associated with the Zika virus, have severe cerebral damage identified on imaging, according to a study published online April 13 in The BMJ.

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FDA: Makers of Corn Masa Flour Can Fortify With Folic Acid

THURSDAY, April 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Makers of corn masa flour can voluntarily add up to 0.7 mg of folic acid per pound of corn masa flour under a new approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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Health Care Workers Skip Hand Washing One-Third of the Time

THURSDAY, April 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Staff at many outpatient health care facilities in New Mexico failed to follow recommendations for hand hygiene more than one-third of the time, according to findings published in the April 1 issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

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CDC: Zika Link to Microcephaly, Brain Damage Confirmed

THURSDAY, April 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Zika virus is a definite and direct cause of microcephaly and other brain-related birth defects, health officials from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced Wednesday. The CDC made its announcement following an evidence review published online April 13 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Pediatric Pneumonia Can Be Diagnosed Via Lung Ultrasound

THURSDAY, April 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lung ultrasounds may offer a safer, yet equally effective, alternative to chest X-rays for diagnosing pneumonia in children, according to a study published recently in Chest.

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Progress Made in Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative

THURSDAY, April 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Two years into the Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative, practices have made progress toward transforming delivery of primary care but have not yet shown savings in expenditures, according to a study published online April 13 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Brain Network Charts Could Help Predict Attention Impairment

THURSDAY, April 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Growth charting methods identify a correlation between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICN) and attention performance, according to a study published online April 13 in JAMA Psychiatry.

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Consumption of Fast Food Linked to Greater Exposure to Phthalates

WEDNESDAY, April 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with high intake of fast food may have levels of phthalates in their urine that are 24 to 40 percent higher than people who rarely eat fast food, according to research published online April 13 in Environmental Health Perspectives.

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Clinical Scores Correlate Well in Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis

WEDNESDAY, April 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For children with atopic dermatitis, clinical scores for sleep loss, pruritus, disease severity, and quality of life correlate well, according to a study published online April 8 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

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Review: Low Risk of Birth Defects With Ondansetron Exposure

WEDNESDAY, April 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The offspring of women using ondansetron early in pregnancy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy or hyperemesis gravidarum may be at risk for cardiac abnormalities, although the overall risk of birth defects associated with exposure appears low, according to a review published in the May issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Clinical Decision Support Tool Cuts CT Use for Appendicitis

WEDNESDAY, April 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The implementation of a multicomponent electronic clinical decision support tool reduces computed tomography (CT) use for pediatric patients with possible appendicitis, according to a study published online April 13 in Pediatrics.

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Doctors Can Be Misled About FDA 'Breakthrough' Drug Designation

TUESDAY, April 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Use of the word "breakthrough" in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's expedited approval process could mislead doctors about the new drugs' actual benefits, according to a research letter published in the April 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Efficacy of DTaP, Tdap Holds Despite Pertactin Deficiency

TUESDAY, April 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Despite an increased proportion of Bordetella pertussis isolates lacking pertactin, vaccine effectiveness (VE) is still high in Vermont for the five-dose diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) series and the tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), according to research published online April 12 in Pediatrics.

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ASCO Presents Guidelines for Increasing HPV Vaccine Uptake

TUESDAY, April 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Recommendations have been developed to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake, according to an American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) special article published online April 11 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Hydrolyzed Egg Preparation Safe for Egg-Allergic Children

MONDAY, April 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A low allergenic hydrolyzed egg (HydE) preparation seems to be safe for use in egg-allergic children, according to a study published online April 5 in Allergy.

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VA Commission on Care: Eliminate VA Medical Centers

MONDAY, April 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A radical proposal has been suggested for eliminating all Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers and outpatient facilities in the next 20 years, floated by seven of 15 members of the VA Commission on Care, according to an article published in the Military Times.

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Cushing's Sx Described in Infant Treated With Ophthalmic Steroid

FRIDAY, April 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In a case report published online April 7 in Pediatrics, iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome (ICS) is described in an infant following intranasal usage of dexamethasone ophthalmic solution.

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New Dietary Guidelines for Americans Issued for 2015-2020

THURSDAY, April 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- New U.S. dietary guidelines have been released for 2015 to 2020, according to a health policy brief published online March 31 in Health Affairs.

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Distress Still High After Chemo Completion in Childhood ALL

WEDNESDAY, April 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Emotional distress is common in children during and after therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), according to a study published online March 29 in Cancer.

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Are Guidelines Needed to Assess Competence of Aging Physicians?

FRIDAY, April 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The question of whether national guidelines need to be developed for assessing the competence of aging physicians was discussed during a recent meeting of key stakeholders, according to a news release from the American Medical Association (AMA).

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Child Mental Health Care Varies Widely in Primary Care Settings

FRIDAY, April 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For children aged 4 to 18 years, mental health diagnoses and psychotropic medication prescribing vary across practices in the United States, according to a review published online April 1 in Pediatrics.

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