April 2017 Briefing - Pulmonology

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for April 2017. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Meeting Organizers Overlooking Qualified Female Scientists

FRIDAY, April 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Invited speakers at medical conferences tend to be disproportionately male, a disparity that can be addressed by actively preparing lists of potential speakers, according to a study published online April 18 in Nature Immunology.

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Risk Factors in Six Areas Tied to Physician Burnout

THURSDAY, April 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Physician burnout factors include control, whether there is time to deliver excellent care, and whether the workplace is fair, according to a presentation at the Medical Group Management Association/American Medical Association 2017 Collaborate in Practice Conference, held April 9 to 11 in Chicago.

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Single-Payer Health System Bill Moves Forward in California

THURSDAY, April 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A proposal to replace private insurance with government-funded health care for all moved forward in California on Wednesday as Democrats on the Senate Health Committee voted to advance the measure.

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Chromosome Instability Test Prognostic in NSCLC

WEDNESDAY, April 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Chromosome instability within lung cancer tumors increases the risk of recurrence or death and may help forecast recurrence long before standard tests, according to a study published online April 26 in the New England Journal of Medicine and Nature.

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FDA Warns Companies Selling Fraudulent Cancer Treatments

WEDNESDAY, April 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on Tuesday posted warning letters to 14 companies that are illegally selling more than 65 unproven cancer treatments.

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CDC: Opioid-Related Mortality Rate Might Be Underestimated

WEDNESDAY, April 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The prescription drug abuse epidemic in the United States might be associated with a higher mortality rate than has been reported previously, according to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention presented April 24 at the Epidemic Intelligence Service conference in Atlanta.

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Deep Convolutional Neural Networks Accurately Detect TB

WEDNESDAY, April 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Deep learning with deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) can result in accurate detection of tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs, according to a study published online April 25 in Radiology.

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Blood-Based Genome Testing Feasible for Rapid Mutation Assay

WEDNESDAY, April 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A blood-based genome testing service provides accurate results within 72 hours, according to a study published online April 19 in the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics.

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Molecular Autopsy IDs Causes of Sudden Arrhythmic Death

WEDNESDAY, April 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Molecular autopsy for electrical disorder and cardiomyopathy genes identifies a modest but realistic yield in sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS), according to a study published online April 24 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Pollution Linked to Destructive Effect on Upper Sinonasal Airway

WEDNESDAY, April 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure of the sinonasal airway barrier to chronic airborne particulate matter has destructive effects, including release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, according to an experimental study published online Feb. 28 in the American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology.

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Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Mortality in CAP

MONDAY, April 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can predict 30-day mortality for elderly adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), according to a study published online April 13 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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NYC to Raise Cigarette Prices to Highest in the United States

FRIDAY, April 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A proposal to boost the base price of a pack of cigarettes from $10.50 to $13.00 would make cigarettes in New York City the most expensive in the country.

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Vertical Integration Linked to Reduction in Readmissions

THURSDAY, April 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Vertical integration, merging health care providers of different levels into a single unit, is associated with a reduction in readmissions overall, although the positive effect is seen for a limited number of conditions, according to a study published in the May issue of Medical Care.

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Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Risk Up for Some Populations

THURSDAY, April 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals in certain occupations and in certain populations may be more at risk of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, according to research published in the May issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Electronic Drug Administration Record App Cuts Errors

THURSDAY, April 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Use of an electronic medication administration record (eMAR) application can reduce the rate of medication errors in medication administration recording (ME-MAR), according to a study published online April 18 in the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.

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Chagas Disease Presents Public Health Challenge in the U.S.

WEDNESDAY, April 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by the triatomine bug, is a public health concern in the United States, according to the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi).

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Potential Benefits, Risks of OpenNotes Discussed

WEDNESDAY, April 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The benefits of sharing notes with patients include improved patient engagement and empowerment, while potential risks may include more phone calls, questions, and increased documentation time, according to a report published in Medical Economics.

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Menopause Linked to Accelerated Decline in Lung Function

WEDNESDAY, April 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Menopause is associated with accelerated decline in lung function, according to a study published in the April 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Single hs-cTnT Measure, Non-Ischemic ECG Can Rule Out AMI

WEDNESDAY, April 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For adults presenting to the emergency department with chest pain, a single high-sensitivity assay for cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) below the limit of detection and a non-ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) can rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI), according to a meta-analysis published online April 18 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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LVAD Can Restore Full Cardiac Function in Heart Failure Patients

WEDNESDAY, April 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Battery-operated left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may restore cardiac function for some heart failure patients, according to a study published in the April 18 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Costs Up With Specialist As Predominant Provider of Care

TUESDAY, April 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For older adults with multimorbidity, having a specialist as the predominant provider of care (PPC) is associated with higher spending and lower continuity of care, according to a study published online April 8 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Pre-Op Training Program Improves Outcomes

TUESDAY, April 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A home-based, preoperative training program can decrease hospital duration of stay and costs of care, while being well accepted by patients, according to a study published recently in Surgery.

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Vitamin B May Help Mitigate Health Risks From Air Pollution

MONDAY, April 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- While exposure to concentrated air pollution has a negative effect on heart rate and levels of white blood cells, these effects are nearly reversed with four-week vitamin B supplementation, according to a study published online April 3 in Scientific Reports.

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Doctors Need to Be Mindful of What They Post on Social Media

MONDAY, April 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Young doctors often have unprofessional or offensive content on their Facebook profiles, according to a study published online April 9 in BJU International.

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Anthrax Cases Linked to Use of Vintage Shaving Brushes

MONDAY, April 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- During and after the First World War, there was an increase in anthrax cases associated with use of new shaving brushes, which were made of imported horsehair, according to research published in the May issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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AAFP: Educational Videos Created to Boost Adult Vaccine Uptake

FRIDAY, April 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A series of short videos focusing on increasing influenza, zoster, and pneumococcal vaccine uptake among adults have been created, according to a report from the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP).

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Favorable Physiological Effect for Ularitide in Acute Heart Failure

THURSDAY, April 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Ularitide has a favorable physiological effect in patients with acute heart failure, according to a study published online April 12 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Cancer Occurrence Differs Among African-Born, U.S.-Born Blacks

THURSDAY, April 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cancer rates differ between African- and U.S.-born black Americans, with cancer rates varying by region of birth in Africa, according to a study published online April 13 in Cancer.

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6 Variables Can Predict Mortality Risk in Cardiogenic Shock

THURSDAY, April 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Six variables can be combined to predict short-term mortality risk in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS), according to a study published in the April 18 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Residents Rate Enjoyment of Teaching As Key for ICU Doctors

WEDNESDAY, April 12, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Behaviors that residents value in intensive care unit (ICU) attending physicians include enjoyment of teaching and treatment of patients, families, and non-physician staff, according to a study published in the April issue of the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Doctor Communication Style Key During Bad-News Encounters

TUESDAY, April 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Enhanced patient-centered communication (E-PCC) positively impacts patients' psychological state during bad-news encounters, according to a study published online April 5 in Cancer.

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Questionnaire-Based Approach Valid for Identifying Frailty

TUESDAY, April 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A questionnaire-based approach seems to be valid for identifying adults in the intensive care unit with a frailty phenotype, according to a study published online March 30 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Benzodiazepines May Up Risk of Pneumonia in Alzheimer's Disease

MONDAY, April 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with Alzheimer's disease who use benzodiazepines may have an increased risk for pneumonia, according to a study published in the April 10 issue of CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Integrated E-Prescribing Can Cut Prescribing, Dispensing Errors

MONDAY, April 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An integrated electronic medication prescribing (e-prescribing) and dispensing system can reduce prescribing and dispensing errors, according to a study published online March 30 in the Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research.

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Exercise Capacity Prognostically Beneficial for Patients

MONDAY, April 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, unless contraindicated, should be performed to obtain an overall view of cardiac and pulmonary patients' clinical status, according to a review published online March 31 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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MACRA Changes Government Approach to Doctor Payment

FRIDAY, April 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) has made fundamental changes to the government's approach to physician payment, according to a March 27 policy brief published in Health Affairs.

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991 Used Oregon's Physician-Aided Dying Law 1998 to 2015

FRIDAY, April 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Fewer than 1,000 residents have followed through since Oregon became the first state to permit physician-aided dying in 1997, according to a report published online April 6 in JAMA Oncology.

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FDA OKs Marketing of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Risk Tests

FRIDAY, April 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the first home genetic tests for 10 diseases or conditions, including Parkinson's disease and late-onset Alzheimer's.

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Cardiorespiratory Fitness Impacts BMI-Related Heart Failure Risk

THURSDAY, April 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of heart failure, which is largely explained by differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), according to a study published online April 5 in JACC: Heart Failure.

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Risk Adjustment, Reinsurance Transfer Offer Financial Benefit

THURSDAY, April 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Risk adjustment and reinsurance transfer programs seem to have been effective for increasing revenues at the expense of claims costs, according to research published in the March issue of Health Affairs.

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Stem Cell-Sheet Transplantation Feasible in Cardiomyopathy

THURSDAY, April 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Stem cell-sheet transplantation shows promise in the treatment of cardiomyopathy, according to research published online April 5 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Second Opinion Yields Different Diagnosis for 1 in 5 Patients

WEDNESDAY, April 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- One-fifth of patients who sought a second opinion recently at a single academic medical center had received a different diagnosis from their primary care providers, according to a study published online April 4 in the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.

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Doctors Must Be Wary of HIPAA Violations With Online Reviews

TUESDAY, April 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians should be aware that responding to a negative health care review could potentially expose personal medical information, resulting in a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) violation, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

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New Antibiotic Tx Beneficial After Acute Lung Function Decline in CF

TUESDAY, April 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- New antibiotic therapy, especially inpatient treatment, is associated with greater likelihood of recovery after acute lung function decline in children with cystic fibrosis, according to a study published online March 21 in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

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Maternal Pertussis Vaccination Reduces Risk for Newborns

TUESDAY, April 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Infants are far less likely to develop pertussis if their mother received a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis (Tdap) booster vaccination while pregnant, according to research published online April 3 in Pediatrics.

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Variation in Occupational Influenza Vaccination Coverage

TUESDAY, April 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There is variation in influenza vaccination coverage by industry and occupation, including among health care personnel and other occupational groups who may have first priority to receive influenza vaccination during a pandemic (tier 1), according to a study published in the April 1 issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

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Use of Health Literacy Tools Can Promote Shared Decision Making

MONDAY, April 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Use of health literacy tools is encouraged for facilitating shared decision making (SDM), according to an article published in the March issue of the AMA Journal of Ethics.

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Vaccination Tied to Reduced Risk of Flu-Linked Pediatric Death

MONDAY, April 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza vaccination is associated with reduced risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated death in children, with overall vaccine effectiveness of 65 percent, according to research published online April 3 in Pediatrics.

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Adding Defibrillator to CRT No Benefit in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

MONDAY, April 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with heart failure with indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), those with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), but not those with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), benefit from additional primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, according to a study published in the April 4 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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MRI Measures Can Predict Pulmonary Arterial HTN Outcome

MONDAY, April 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures can predict outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), according to a study published online March 22 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Twenty-Five Food Categories Explain 70 Percent of Salt Intake

MONDAY, April 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For U.S. persons, 70 percent of dietary sodium comes from 25 food categories, with bread the top contributor, according to research published in the March 31 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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